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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology by Alexei Verkhratsky
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Preface xvii

About the Authors xxi

Abbreviations xxv

About the Companion Website xxxii

1 History of Neuroscience and the Dawn of Research in Neuroglia 1

1.1 The miraculous human brain: localising the brain functions 1

1.2 Cellular organisation of the brain 10

1.3 Mechanisms of communications in neural networks 14

1.4 The concept of neuroglia 27

1.5 Beginning of the modern era 47

1.6 Concluding remarks 49

References 49

2 General Overview of Signalling in the Nervous System 59

2.1 Intercellular signalling: wiring and volume modes of transmission 59

2.2 Cellular signalling: receptors 62

2.3 Intracellular signalling: second messengers 67

2.4 Calcium signalling 67

2.5 Concluding remarks 72

3 Neuroglia: Definition, Classification, Evolution, Numbers, Development 73

3.1 Definition of neuroglia as homeostatic cells of the nervous system 74

3.2 Classification 75

3.3 Evolution of neuroglia 76

3.4 Numbers: how many glial cells are in the brain? 93

3.5 Embryogenesis and development of neuroglia in mammals 96

3.6 Concluding remarks 99

References 100

4 Astroglia 105

4.1 Definition and heterogeneity 107

4.2 Morphology of the main types of astroglia 113

4.3 How to identify astrocytes in the nervous tissue 119

4.4 Astroglial syncytial networks 120

4.5 Physiology of astroglia 125

4.6 Functions of astroglia 175

4.7 Concluding remarks 231

References 231

5 Oligodendrocytes 245

5.1 Oligodendrocyte anatomy 247

5.2 Myelin structure and function 252

5.3 Physiology of oligodendrocytes 266

5.4 Oligodendrocyte development 283

5.5 Concluding remarks 299

References 299

6 NG2-glial Cells 321

6.1 Definition of NG2-glia 321

6.2 Structure of NG2-glia 324

6.3 Physiology of NG2-glia 327

6.4 Proliferation of NG2-glia and generation of oligodendrocytes 332

6.5 Relationship between NG2-glia and CNS pericytes 333

6.6 Evolution of NG2-glia 336

6.7 Concluding remarks 337

References 337

7 Microglia 343

7.1 Definition of microglia 344

7.2 Microglial origin and development 345

7.3 Morphology of microglia 345

7.4 General physiology of microglia 351

7.5 Microglial migration and motility 372

7.6 Physiological functions of microglia: role in synaptic transmission and plasticity 373

7.7 Microglia in ageing 375

7.8 Concluding remarks 375

References 376

8 Peripheral Glial Cells 381

8.1 Peripheral nervous system 382

8.2 Schwann cells 390

8.3 Satellite glial cells 407

8.4 Enteric glia 412

8.5 Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) 418

8.6 Concluding remarks 422

References 423

9 General Pathophysiology of Neuroglia 431

9.1 Neurological disorders as gliopathologies 431

9.2 Reactive astrogliosis 433

9.3 Wallerian degeneration 439

9.4 Excitotoxic vulnerability of oligodendrocytes: the death of white matter 442

9.5 Activation of microglia 444

9.6 Concluding remarks 449

References 450

10 Neuroglia in Neurological Diseases 453

10.1 Introduction 454

10.2 Genetic astrogliopathology: Alexander disease 456

10.3 Stroke and ischaemia 458

10.4 Migraine and spreading depression 467

10.5 CNS oedema 469

10.6 Metabolic disorders 471

10.7 Toxic encephalopathies 473

10.8 Neurodegenerative diseases 474

10.9 Leukodystrophies 487

10.10 Epilepsy 488

10.11 Psychiatric diseases 490

10.12 Autistic disorders 491

10.13 Neuropathic pain 492

10.14 Demyelinating diseases 494

10.15 Infectious diseases 496

10.16 Peripheral neuropathies 499

10.17 Gliomas 501

10.18 Concluding remarks 504

References 504

Author Index 513

Subject Index 517

Wiley; January 2013
560 pages; ISBN 9781118402054
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Title: Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology
Author: Alexei Verkhratsky; Arthur Morgan Butt
 
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ISBNs
1118402057
9780470978535
9781118402030
9781118402047
9781118402054