The Glass Palace
1. Dolly is one of the most compelling characters in The Glass Palace, and the one besides Rajkumar that the reader follows throughout the course of the novel. How does her identity and role evolve as she grows older, and takes on new positions in new locales? What was Dolly's function in the royal household while they were living in the Glass Palace and how does it change once they are forced in to exile in Ratnagiri? How does her role evolve once she marries Rajkumar and has children of her own? What is the significance of her relationship with Uma, and how does the friendship change Dolly as a character?
2. Although a work of fiction, real people and events appear throughout the novel, like the Burmese Nobel Peace Laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, the Japanese invasion of Malaya, World War II, the British invasion of Burma, and the deportation of the Burmese royal family. This history of Burma, Malaya, and India throughout the late 19th century and mid 20th century is the backbone against the fictional story is told. How do the real events and people lend credibility to the characters and their plight? Does the creation of these fictional characters make the history of the real people and places more immediate and comprehensible? If The Glass Palace were a strict work of nonfiction, would the issues raised by the book differ significantly? Do you think it is more powerful as a work of fiction? Amitav Ghosh was inspired to write The Glass Palace by his uncle, a self-made businessman, not unlike Rajkumar, who had taken on almost mythic status in Ghosh's family. It was originally going to be written as a memoir. Why do you think Ghosh may have decided to write a novel instead?
3. The Glass Palace considers the forces of war and governments and the role they play in shaping the fate of individuals, a people, and a country, and most specifically Burma. The novel begins with Burma's last king going into exile during the British invasion of 1885 and returns to Burma for its conclusion, but this time the country is under a repressive military regime. What point do you think Ghosh was trying to make by bringing the story back to where it started for its conclusion? How had Burma changed and been transformed as a country? How do we see the Burmese people themselves evolve throughout the novel in the face of war and different regimes? What remains constant in national identity and what easily changes?
4. In many ways Arjun is the character that most embodies the conflicting forces and loyalties that have come to shape the modern Indian identity. He is neither fully Burmese nor Indian, and culturally he is in many ways British. Why do you think Arjun is initially so successful in the British army? Do you think it is wrong of him to fight for Britain? Why do you think he resisted joining the Indian National Army for so long, and should he have joined at all? How do other characters in the novel express this conflict of national allegiance and identity?
5. The character of Rajkumar seems to embody everything that is both good and bad about British imperialism. He is a self-made businessman who through sheer enterprise and tenacity was able to raise himself out of his humble beginnings and build a teak empire, which is not unlike the imperialist urge to expand and improve. His empire, however, like Britain, relied on exploiting Indian workers for raw labor and disregarded most everything else. Do you think Rajkumar is a sympathetic character? Does he only prosper from imperialism, or does he suffer as well? What is the importance of his relationship with Dolly, and do you think it has redemptive force in his life?
6. Why do you think Ghosh goes into so much detail what the life of the royal family's life was like in exile in Ratnagiri? Why do you think they initially held on to their customs so tightly? Was Dolly's live better or worse after the family went into exile? At times there was something almost comical about the royal family and their helplessness once they were removed from the comforts of the Glass Palace. What do you think Ghosh was trying to convey by this?
Title: The Glass Palace
Author: Amitav Ghosh
There was only one person in the food-stall who knew exactly what that sound was that was rolling in across the plain, along the silver curve of the Irrawaddy, to the western wall of Mandalay's fort. His name was Rajkumar and he was an Indian, a boy of eleven — not an authority to be relied upon.
The noise was unfamiliar and unsettling, a distant booming followed by low, stuttering growls. At times it was like the snapping of dry twigs, sudden and unexpected. And then, abruptly, it would change to a deep rumble, shaking the food-stall and rattling its steaming pot of soup. The stall had only two benches, and they were both packed with people, sitting pressed up against each other. It was cold, the start of central Burma's brief but chilly winter, and the sun had not risen high enough yet to burn off the damp mist that had drifted in at dawn from the river. When the first booms reached the stall there was a silence, followed by a flurry of questions and whispered answers. People looked around in bewilderment: What is it? Ba le? What can it be? And then Rajkumar's sharp, excited voice cut through the buzz of speculation. "English cannon," he said in his fluent but heavily accented Burmese. "They're shooting somewhere up the river. Heading in this direction."
Frowns appeared on some customers' faces as they noted that it was the serving-boy who had spoken and that he was a kalaa from across the sea — an Indian, with teeth as white as his eyes and skin the color of polished hardwood. He was standing in the center of the stall, holding a pile of chipped ceramic bowls. He was grinning a little sheepishly, as though embarrassed to parade his precocious knowingness.
His name meant Prince, but he was anything but princely in appearance, with his oil-splashed vest, his untidily knotted longyi and his bare feet with their thick slippers of callused skin. When people asked how old he was he said fifteen, or sometimes eighteen or nineteen, for it gave him a sense of strength and power to be able to exaggerate so wildly, to pass himself off as grown and strong, in body and judgment, when he was, in fact, not much more than a child. But he could have said he was twenty and people would still have believed him, for he was a big, burly boy, taller and broader in the shoulder than many men. And because he was very dark it was hard to tell that his chin was as smooth as the palms of his hands, innocent of all but the faintest trace of fuzz.
It was chance alone that was responsible for Rajkumar's presence in Mandalay that November morning. His boat — the sampan on which he worked as a helper and errand-boy — had been found to need repairs after sailing up the Irrawaddy from the Bay of Bengal. The boatowner had taken fright on being told that the work might take as long as a month, possibly even longer. He couldn't afford to feed his crew that long, he'd decided: some of them would have to find other jobs. Rajkumar was told to walk to the city, a couple of miles inland. At a bazaar, opposite the west wall of the fort, he was to ask for a woman called Ma Cho. She was half-Indian and she ran a small food-stall; she might have some work for him.
And so it happened that at the age of eleven, walking into the city of Mandalay, Rajkumar saw, for the first time, a straight road. By the sides of the road there were bamboo-walled shacks and palm-thatched shanties, pats of dung and piles of refuse. But the straight course of the road's journey was unsmudged by the clutter that flanked it: it was like a causeway cutting across a choppy sea. Its lines led the eye right through the city, past the bright red walls of the fort to the distant pagodas of Mandalay Hill, shining like a string of white bells upon the slope.
For his age, Rajkumar was well travelled. The boat he worked on was a coastal craft that generally kept to open waters, plying the long length of shore that joined Burma to Bengal. Rajkumar had been to Chittagong and Bassein and any number of towns and villages in between. But in all his travels he had never come across thoroughfares like those in Mandalay. He was accustomed to lanes and alleys that curled endlessly around themselves so that you could never see beyond the next curve. Here was something new: a road that followed a straight, unvarying course, bringing the horizon right into the middle of habitation.
When the fort's full immensity revealed itself, Rajkumar came to a halt in the middle of the road. The citadel was a miracle to behold, with its mile-long walls and its immense moat. The crenellated ramparts were almost three storeys high, but of a soaring lightness, red in color, and topped by ornamented gateways with seven-tiered roofs. Long straight roads radiated outwards from the walls, forming a neat geometrical grid. So intriguing was the ordered pattern of these streets that Rajkumar wandered far afield, exploring. It was almost dark by the time he remembered why he'd been sent to the city. He made his way back to the fort's western wall and asked for Ma Cho.
"She has a stall where she sells food — baya-gyaw and other things. She's half Indian."
"Ah, Ma Cho." It made sense that this ragged-looking Indian boy was looking for Ma Cho: she often had Indian strays working at her stall. "There she is, the thin one."
Ma Cho was small and harried-looking, with spirals of wiry hair hanging over her forehead, like a fringed awning. She was in her mid-thirties, more Burmese than Indian in appearance. She was busy frying vegetables, squinting at the smoking oil from the shelter of an upthrust arm. She glared at Rajkumar suspiciously. "What do you want?"
He had just begun to explain about the boat and the repairs and wanting a job for a few weeks when she interrupted him. She began to shout at the top of her voice, with her eyes closed: "What do you think — I have jobs under my armpits, to pluck out and hand to you? Last week a boy ran away with two of my pots. Who's to tell me you won't do the same?"And so on.
Rajkumar understood that this outburst was not aimed directly at him: that it had more to do with the dust, the splattering oil, and the price of vegetables than with his own presence or with anything he had said. He lowered his eyes and stood there stoically, kicking the dust until she was done.
She paused, panting, and looked him over. "Who are your parents?" she said at last, wiping her streaming forehead on the sleeve of her sweat-stained aingyi.
"I don't have any. They died."