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Field Sampling

Principles and Practices in Environmental Analysis

Field Sampling by Jr. Conklin
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INTRODUCTION TO FIELD SAMPLING
Assessing the Sampling Needs
Soil
Water and Air
Presampling
Safety
Sampling
Statistics
Modeling
Sample Handling
What is Present?
Analytical Methods
Traps
Essential Units
Definitions
Other Ways of Sampling and Representing the Environment
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Conclusions

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Parts of the Environment
Soil Formation
Soil Types
Soil Texture, Structure, and Bulk Density
Water Movement Over and Through Soil
Conclusions
Questions
References

PRESAMPLING
Field Office
Field Office Laboratory
The Project Notebook
Maps
Preliminary Field Survey
Field History
Sampling Tools
Other Soil Sampling Considerations
Safety
Sample Containers
Transportation and Storage
Chain of Custody
Analytical Laboratory and Procedures
Statistics
Other Tools to Consider
Modeling
Permitting
Resources
Conclusions
Questions
References

SAFETY
Areas of Safety Concern
Safety Resources
Basic Safety
Signage
Personnel Exposure
Personnel Protection
Monitoring
Safety at Different Field Types
Contamination Types and Concentrations
Off-Field Protection
MSDS Sheets
Merck Index
Conclusions
Questions
References

SAMPLING
General Sampling Considerations
Global Positioning System
Ground-Penetrating Radar
Remote Sensing
Geographical Information Systems
Samplers
Sample Amount
Sample Container
Duplicate, Split, and Composite Samples
Sampling Strategies
Topography
Other Sampling Strategies for Different Field Situations
Sample Handling
Sampling Using GPS
Determining Sample Sites
Quality Control
Labeling
Conclusions
Questions
References

STATISTICS
Random Numbers
Variation
Population
Hypothesis
Median and Mean
Standard Deviation
Different of Same Population
Extraneous Values
How Many Samples?
Comparing Areas
Linear Regression
Geostatistics
Coregionalization
Geostatistical Problems
Conclusions
Questions
References

MODELING
Physical Models
Chemical Models
Simple Mathematical Models
Landscape Models
Modeling Movement of Particles through the Environment
Dynamic Models
Commercial Computer Modeling
GIS and Environmental Modeling
Whole Planet Model
Conclusions
Questions
References

SAMPLE TREATMENT AND STORAGE
Security
Containers
Controls
Transport in the Field
Transport Boxes
Transport Out of Field
Storage
Archival Samples
Separation of Samples at the Field Office
Field Laboratory Handling
Transportation to the Commercial Laboratory
Storage at the Commercial Analytical Laboratory
Chain of Custody
Computer Chain of Custody
Request for Analysis
Conclusions
Questions
References

WHAT IS PRESENT?
In Total
The Inorganic Components
The Organic Components
The Biochemical Component
The Living Component
Conclusions
Questions
References

AN OVERVIEW OF BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANALYTICAL MEHTODS
Determining the Problem
What is the Nature of the Sample?
The Sampling Process
What Is to Be Sampled and How Is It to Be Sampled
Documentation
Sample Preparation for Analysis
Analytical Testing
Analytical Methods - Some Specifics
Data Assessment
Report Generation and Documentation
Do the Results Answer the Client's Question?
Some General Questions and Considerations
Conclusions
Questions
References

TRAPS, MISTAKES, AND ERRORS
History of the Area
Area Geology
Knowing What Is or Is Likely to Be Present
Not Accounting for Inputs, Losses, and Movement
Personnel
Analyzing of Sampling for the Wrong Component
Antagomisms and Interferences
Sample Analysis Mismatch
Extraction or Method Errors
Sample/Test Container Errors
Improper Sampling Techniques
Variations in Method
Movement of a Contaminant
Statistical Errors
Conclusions
Questions
References

Appendix A: Abbreviations and Acronyms
Appendix B: Sources
Index
CRC Press; February 2013
347 pages; ISBN 9781482276657
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Title: Field Sampling
Author: Jr. Conklin
 
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