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Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems by Donald Reimert
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GENERATOR NORMAL OPERATIONS
The Sample System
Generator Capability
Voltage Limitations
System Limitations
Generator Capability Variations with Voltage
Excitation System
References
GENERATOR SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Introduction
Short-Circuit Current Characteristics
Generator Internal Magnetics
Generator Magnetic Structures
Generator Constants
Fault Current Calculations
Voltage Regulator
Practical Shortcuts
Short Circuit Calculation Example
References
GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY: 87G
Introduction
Ideal Differential Relay
Practical Considerations
Percentage Differential Relay
Relay Characteristics
Minimum Operating Current Setting
Slope Setting
Sample System Differential Relay Settings
CT Saturation
Stabilizing Resistor
Balancing Burden
Time Delay
Frequency Response
References
BACKUP FAULT PROTECTION
Purpose and Implementation
Voltage Supervised Overcurrent Relays
Distance Relays
References
GENERATOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION
Introduction
Generator Grounding Considerations
Methods of Grounding
Ground Fault Protection
References
UNBALANCED CURRENT PROTECTION
Introduction
What is Negative-Sequence Current?
Effects of Negative-Sequence Current
Generator Negative-Sequence Capability
Sources of Negative-Sequence Current
In-Service (I2)^2t Duty Versus Standards
Unbalanced Current Protection
Negative-Sequence Relay Settings
References
MOTORING PROTECTION
Introduction
Effects of Motoring
Protection
Sequential Trip Logic
Backup Protection
Setting Device 32
Applying Reversed Power Relay on the Sample System
References
FIELD WINDING PROTECTION
Field Ground Protection
Field Overcurrent Protection
Settings for Field Overcurrent Overvoltage Relays
Applying Field OC Protection on the Sample System
References
OVEREXCITATION
Introduction
Causes of Overexcitation
Damage
V/Hz Limits
Protection
Settings
Differential Relay Response to Overexcitation
Application of V/Hz Protection on the Sample System
References
ABNORMAL FREQUENCY PROTECTION
Introduction
Effect on Generator
Steam Turbines
Combustion Turbines
Hydro Generators
Excitation System
Protection and Settings
References
MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER
Overview of the Minimum Excitation Limiter Application
Setting Criteria Background
Setting Criteria
Steady State and Dynamic Stability Considerations
Generator Leading VAR Capability
Coordination with the LOF Relay
System Stability Limits
MEL Protective Characteristic
MEL Dynamic Performance
MEL Application on the Sample System
References
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Introduction
Turbine Generator Damage
Transient Stability
Out-of-Step Protection
Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic
Dynamic Swing Representation
Dynamic Swing Calculations
Setting Consideration
Out-of-Step Relay: Device 78
Setting Out-of-Step on Sample System
References
LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION
General
System Impact
Generator Damage
Loss of Field Protection: Device 40
Distance Relay Schemes
Other Causes for LOF Relay Operations
LOF Relays During System Disturbances
Special Considerations for Hydro Units
Application of the LOF on the Sample System
References
SYNCHRONIZATION PROTECTION
Introduction
Damage
Synchronizing Methods
Synchronism Check Relays (Device 25)
Automatic Synchronizer (Device 25A)
Slow Breaker Protection
Settings
Synchronizing Equipment on the Sample System
References
ACCIDENTAL ENERGIZATION PROTECTION
Introduction
Generator State at Energization
Inadvertent Energization
Breaker Flashover
Dynamic Analysis of Three-Phase Energization from Standstill
Generator Damage
Turbine Damage
Energization Protection
Protection Provided by Native Schemes
Dedicated Energization Protection
Applying Energization Protection on the Sample System
References
MOTOR PROTECTION
Introduction
Motor Characteristics And Representation
Motor Ratings
Motor Characteristics
Motor Applications
Motor Starting
Mechanic System Considerations
Pump Characteristics
Motor Overload Protection
Multifunction Microprocessor Relays
Transient Current Evaluation
Special Schemes for Difficult Starts
Direct Temperature Measurement
Phase Fault Protection
Ground Fault Protection
Phase Unbalanced Protection
Sample Setting Calculations
References
APPENDIX A: SWING IMPEDANCE LOCUS CALCULATION USING EXCEL®
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX F
INDEX
CRC Press; December 2005
594 pages; ISBN 9781420030488
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Title: Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems
Author: Donald Reimert
 
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