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Shaft Alignment Handbook, Third Edition

Shaft Alignment Handbook, Third Edition by John Piotrowski
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INTRODUCTION TO SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Benefits of Good Machinery Alignment
Consequences of Defective Alignment
Four Basic Ingredients Necessary to Insure Alignment Success
Eight Basic Steps to Align Machinery
How Qualified Are You to Detect and Correct Machinery Misalignment?
Why Should People Be Tested on Their Alignment Skills?
Experience Evaluation for Machinery Alignment
Who Needs to Be Trained and Qualified in Shaft Alignment?
Assessing a Person's Knowledge and Experience Level in Shaft Alignment
Alignment Qualification or Certification Testing
Periodic Alignment Checks
Alignment Record Keeping
References
DETECTING MISALIGNMENT ON ROTATING MACHINERY
The Four Maintenance Philosophies
Types of Forces that Occur on Rotating Machinery
Bibliography
FOUNDATIONS, BASEPLATES, INSTALLATION, AND PIPING STRAIN
Varying Composition of Earth's Surface Layer
How Do We Hold This Equipment in Place?
Problems to Look for in Your Foundations and Baseplates
Checking for Excessive Static Piping Forces on Rotating Equipment
Visual Inspection Checklist
How Long Will Rotating Machinery Stay Accurately Aligned?
References
FLEXIBLE AND RIGID COUPLINGS
Coupling and Shaft Misalignment Tolerances-What is the Difference?
The Role of the Flexible Coupling
What to Consider When Specifying a Flexible Coupling
Types of Flexible Couplings
Rigid Coupling Design
Flexible Coupling Lubrication
Coupling Installation
Coupling Hub Attachment Methods
Keys and Keyways
Bibliography
PRELIMINARY ALIGNMENT CHECKS
Foundation and Base Plate Checks
Dial Indicator Basics
Damaged, Worn, or Improperly Installed Machinery Component Checks
Runout
Machine Housing to Base Plate Interface Problems
Verifying that the Soft Foot Has Been Eliminated
Other Methods for Correcting Soft Foot Problems
SHAFT ALIGNMENT MEASURING TOOLS
Dimensional Measurement
Classes of Dimensional Measurement Tools and Sensors
Sweeping 90° Arcs Twice to Measure a Misalignment Condition
Why Measurements Are Taken at 90° Intervals
Rotating Both Shafts to Override a Runout Condition
Tips for Getting Good Alignment Measurements
Engaged Couplings Will Produce Measurement Errors
Rim Indicator Setup Variations
Rim Readings Indicate Twice the Centerline Offset
Validity Rule
Partial Arc Mathematics
Bracket or Bar Sag
Xmas Tree Brackets and Face Sag
Zero Sag Brackets
Dial Indicator Shaft Alignment System Manufacturers
Dial Indicator Manufacturers Hardware Specifications
Bibliography
CORRECTING MISALIGNMENT
Installing Machinery for the First Time
Bolt-Bound Conditions
Last Resort Measures for Bolt-Bound Conditions
Machinery Positioning Basics
Types of Movement Tools
What to Do When Things Are Not Working
Misalignment Rantings
Bibliography
ALIGNMENT MODELING BASICS
Graphing and Modeling Alignment Techniques
Basic Alignment Models
Scaling the Drive System onto the Alignment Model
Cardinal Alignment Graphing and Modeling Rules
Bibliography
DEFINING MISALIGNMENT: ALIGNMENT AND COUPLING TOLERANCES
What Exactly Is Shaft Alignment?
Does Level and Aligned Mean the Same Thing?
Measuring Angles
Types of Misalignment
Definition of Shaft Misalignment
Checking the Misalignment Tolerance
Shaft versus Coupling Alignment
How Straight Are Rotating Machinery Shafts?
REVERSE INDICATOR METHOD
Basic Mathematical Equations for the Reverse Indicator Method
Modeling Reverse Indicator Method Using the ''Point-To-Point'' Technique
Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount
Modeling the Reverse Indicator Method Using the Line-To-Point Technique
Bibliography
FACE AND RIM METHODS
Mathematical Relationship in Machinery Alignment
Sixteen-Point Method
Twenty-Point Method
Problems with Taking Face Readings
Modeling the Face and Rim Method
Artificial Face Surface
References
DOUBLE RADIAL METHOD
Basic Mathematical Equations for the Double Radial Method
Modeling the Double Radial Method
SHAFT TO COUPLING SPOOL METHOD
Basic Mathematical Equations for the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method
Modeling the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method
FACE-FACE METHOD
Basic Mathematical Equations for the Face-Face Method
Modeling the Face-Face Method
ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL SHAFT ALIGNMENT SYSTEMS
Optical Encoder System
Laser-Detector Systems
Laser System Manufacturers Hardware Specifications
Laser System Manufacturers Software Specifications
References
MEASURING AND COMPENSATING FOR OFF-LINE TO RUNNING MACHINERY MOVEMENT
What Type of Machinery Is Likely to Change Equipment's Position When Running?
What Causes Machinery Movement to Occur?
Conducting the Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement Survey
Taking "Hot" Alignment Measurements Immediately after Shutdown
Four General Categories of OL2R Measurements
Calculating Machine Case Thermal Expansion Using the Strain Equation
Inside Micrometer-Tooling Ball-Angle Measurement Devices
Vertical, Lateral, and Axial OL2R Movement
Proximity Probes with Water-Cooled Stands
Optical Alignment Equipment
Optical Parallax
Using Optical Tooling for Measuring Machinery Movement
Establishing Reference Planes
Alignment Bars with Proximity Probes
Applying Laser-Detector Systems for OL2R Measurements
Ball-Rod-Tubing Connector System
Vernier-Strobe System
Instrumented Coupling Systems
Aligning Shafts for Running Conditions (Also Known as Running Alignment or ''Hot Operating Alignment'')
Bibliography
ALIGNING MULTIPLE-ELEMENT DRIVE SYSTEMS
Multiple-Element Drive Train Alignment Laws
Multiple-Element Drive Train: Graphing and Modeling Techniques
Multiple-Element Drive Train Modeling-One Set of Shafts at a Time
Multiple-Element Drive System Graphing-Modeling All the Shafts at One Time
Mixing Different Alignment Measurement Methods
Modeling Right-Angle Drive Systems
Final Comments on Aligning Multiple-Element Drive Trains
References
ALIGNING V-BELT DRIVES
Belt Drive Systems-Advantages and Disadvantages
V-Belt Standards Information
Sheave Information
V-Belt Recommendations and Rules of Thumb
Sheave and Belt Wear
Adjusting Belt Tension
Preliminary Alignment Checks for V-Belts and Sheaves
Types of Sheave Misalignment Conditions
Using a Straightedge to Measure Misalignment
Measuring the Misalignment at the Sheaves
V-Belt Machine Measurements
Modeling V-Belt Alignment Problems
V-Belt Alignment Modeling Sample Problem
Laser Alignment Systems for V-Belts and Sheaves
Bibliography
BORE ALIGNMENT
Aligning a Rotating Shaft with a Stationary Hollow Cylinder
Aligning Two Hollow Cylinders
Basic Measurement Principles and Nomenclature
Cylinder Alignment Procedure
Bucking in Process
Correcting the Misalignment
Laser Bore Alignment Systems
PARALLEL ALIGNMENT
Rough Alignment of Parallel Rolls
Using Optical Alignment Equipment for Roll Parallelism
Aligning the Rolls in the Vertical (Up/Down) Direction
Aligning the Rolls in the Lateral (Side to Side) Direction
Using Laser-Detector Systems to Measure Parallelism
Using Roll, Pitch, and Yaw Positions of Rolls to Measure Parallelism
Aligning Rolls and Their Drives-Sample Problem
ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF MACHINERY
Drivers
Bibliography
THE HISTORY OF MACHINERY ALIGNMENT
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Machinery Data Card
Appendix B: Sample Preliminary Alignment Record Sheet
Appendix C: Sample Installation and Shaft Alignment
Appendix D: Torque Values (SAE Grade 2 Bolts).
Appendix E: Torque Values (SAE Grade 5 Bolts)
Appendix F: Torque Values (SAE Grade 8 Bolts)
Appendix G: Shaft Alignment and Related U.S. Patents
Appendix H: Shaft Alignment Training Questionnaire
Appendix I: Shaft Alignment Services Questionnaire
Appendix J: Alignment Internet Web Sites
Appendix K: Single Plane Balancing
INDEX
CRC Press; November 2006
865 pages; ISBN 9781420017878
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Title: Shaft Alignment Handbook, Third Edition
Author: John Piotrowski
 
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