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Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors

Theory, Growth, and Characterization

Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors by John E. Ayers
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Introduction
Properties of Semiconductors
Introduction
Crystallographic Properties
Lattice Constants and Thermal Expansion Coefficients
Elastic Properties
Surface Free Energy
Dislocations
Planar Defects
Problems
References
Heteroepitaxial Growth
Introduction
Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE)
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
Silicon, Germanium, and Si1-xGex Alloys
Silicon Carbide
III-Arsenides, III-Phosphides, and III-Antimonides
III-Nitrides
II-VI Semiconductors
Conclusion
Problems
References
Surface and Chemical Considerations in Heteroepitaxy
Introduction
Surface Reconstructions
Nucleation
Growth Modes
Nucleation Layers
Surfactants in Heteroepitaxy
Quantum Dots and Self-Assembly
Problems
References
Mismatched Heteroepitaxial Growth and Strain Relaxation
Introduction
Pseudomorphic Growth and the Critical Layer Thickness
Dislocation Sources
Interactions between Misfit Dislocations
Lattice Relaxation Mechanisms
Quantitative Models for Lattice Relaxation
Lattice Relaxation on Vicinal Substrates: Crystallographic Tilting of Heteroepitaxial Layers
Lattice Relaxation in Graded Layers
Lattice Relaxation in Superlattices and Multilayer Structures
Dislocation Coalescence, Annihilation, and Removal in Relaxed Heteroepitaxial Layers
Thermal Strain
Cracking in Thick Films
Problems
References
Characterization of Heteroepitaxial Layers
Introduction
X-Ray Diffraction
Electron Diffraction
Microscopy
Crystallographic Etching Techniques
Photoluminescence
Growth Rate and Layer Thickness
Composition and Strain
Determination of Critical Layer Thickness
Crystal Orientation
Defect Types and Densities
Multilayered Structures and Superlattices
Growth Mode
Problems
References
Defect Engineering in Heteroepitaxial Layers
Introduction
Buffer Layer Approaches
Reduced Area Growth Using Patterned Substrates
Patterning and Annealing
Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO)
Pendeo-Epitaxy
Nanoheteroepitaxy
Planar Compliant Substrates
Free-Standing Semiconductor Films
Conclusion
Problems
References
Appendix A: Bandgap Engineering Diagrams
Appendix B: Lattice Constants and Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
Appendix C: Elastic Constants
Appendix D: Critical Layer Thickness
Appendix E: Crystallographic Etches
Appendix F: Tables for X-Ray Diffraction Index
CRC Press; January 2007
476 pages; ISBN 9781420006643
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Title: Heteroepitaxy of Semiconductors
Author: John E. Ayers
 
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