Neurophysiology Study Guide
Audience: Intended for everyone interested in Neurophysiology, particularly undergraduate and graduate life science students, medical students, and nursing students.
Written in clear, concise format.
Difficult concepts are explained in simple terms.
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Table of Contents
I. Neurocellular Anatomy
Neuron: Axon | Dendrite | Apical dendrite | Dendritic spine | Afferent nerve | Efferent nerve | Sensory nerve | Motor nerve
Axonal Transport and Growth: Axoplasmic transport | Kinesin | Dynein | Myosin | Growth cone | Axon guidance
Synapse: Synaptic Vesicles | Exocytosis | Endocytosis | Synaptic plasticity | SNARE | Synaptobrevin | Synapsin | NSF | Excitatory synapse | Inhibitory synapse | Electrical synapse | Gap junction
Types of neurons: Pyramidal cell | Betz cell | Purkinje cell | Neuromuscular junction | Muscle spindle | Golgi organ | Motor neuron | Sensory neuron
Glial cell: Astrocyte | Oligodendrocyte | Schwann cell | Myelin | Nodes of Ranvier
Cytoskeleton: Actin | Intermediate filament | Microtubule
II. Membranes And Transport
Membrane Structure: Fluid mosaic model | Detailed Structure
Membrane Components: Phospholipids | Sphingomyelin | Glycolipid | Glycocalix | Cholesterol
Movement of Molecules: Diffusion | Osmosis | Electrochemical gradient
Passive transport: Facilitated diffusion | Ion channel
Active transport: ATP-Dependent Na/K Pump | Proton pump | Antiporter | Symporter
III. Ion Channels
Channels: Ion channel | Gap junction
Voltage-gated: Potassium channel | Sodium channel | BK channel | Inward-rectifier potassium ion channel | Resting channels | Calcium channel
Ligand-gated: NMDA receptor | AMPA receptor | Kainate receptor | Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor | Glycine receptor | GABA receptor
Other ion channels: Cyclic nucleotide-gated | Stretch-activated | G-protein-gated | Light-gated | Gap junction
IV. Electrical Phenomena
Review: Electrical charge | Resistance | Capacitance
Resting Membrane Potential: Ionic Basis | Number of ions involved in generating the resting potential | Equilibrium potential | Other values of membrane potential | Implications | Nernst equation | Goldman equation | Depolarization | Hyperpolarization
Action Potential: Threshold and initiation | Circuit model | Propagation | Refractory period | Evolutionary purpose | Nodes of Ranvier | Reflex arc
Postsynaptic Potential: Excitatory postsynaptic potential | Inhibitory postsynaptic potential | Spatial summation | Temporal summation | Shunting
V. Signal Transduction
Extracellular Signalling - Neurotransmitters and receptors: Acetylcholine | Degradation by acetylcholinesterase | Ach Receptors
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