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Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing

Principles and Applications

Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing by Stuart Bradley
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What Is Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing?
Direct Measurements and Remote Measurements
How Can Measurements Be Made Remotely?
Passive and Active Remote Sensing
Some History
Why Use Acoustics?
Direct Sound Propagation from a Source to a Receiver
Acoustic Targets
Creating Our Own Target
Modern Acoustic Remote Sensing
Applications
Where to, from Here?
The Atmosphere Near the Ground
Temperature Profiles Near the Surface
Wind Profiles Near the Surface
Richardson Number
The Prandtl Number
The Structure of Turbulence
Monin-Oboukhov Length
Similarity Relationships
Profiles of  and
Probability Distribution of Wind Speeds
Sound in the Atmosphere
Basics of Sound Waves
Frequency Spectra
Background and System Noise
Reflection and Refraction
Diffraction
Doppler Shift
Scattering
Attenuation
Sound Propagation Horizontally
Sound Transmission and Reception
Geometric Objective of SODAR Design
Speakers, Horns, and Antennas
Monostatic and Bistatic SODAR Systems
Doppler Shift from Monostatic and Bistatic SODARs
Beam Width Effects on Doppler Shift
Continuous and Pulsed Systems
Geometry of Scattering
The Acoustic Radar Equation
Acoustic Baffles
Frequency-Dependent Form of the Acoustic Radar Equation
Obtaining Wind Vectors
Multiple Frequencies
Pulse Coding Methods
SODAR Systems and Signal Quality
Transducer and Antenna Combinations
SODAR Timing
Basic Hardware Units
Data Availability
Loss of Signal in Noise
Calibration
SODAR Signal Analysis
Signal Acquisition
Detecting Signals in Noise
Consistency Methods
Turbulent Intensities
Peak Detection Methods of AeroVironment and Metek
Robust Estimation of Doppler Shift from SODAR Spectra
Averaging to Improve SNR
Spatial and Temporal Separation of Sampling Volumes
Sources of Measurement Error
A Model for SODAR Response to a Prescribed Atmosphere
RASS Systems
RADAR Fundamentals
Reflection of RADAR Signals from Sound Waves
Estimation of Measured Height
Deduction of Temperature
Wind Measurements
Turbulent Measurements
RASS Designs
Antennas
Limitations
Applications
Review of Selected Applications
Environmental Research
Boundary Layer Research
Wind Power and Loading
Complex Terrain
Sound Speed Profiles
Hazards
Appendix 1: Mathematical Background
Appendix 2: Sample Data Sets and Matlab Code
Appendix 3: Available Systems
Appendix 4: Acoustic Travel Time Tomography
Appendix 5: Installation of a SODAR or RASS
Index
CRC Press; December 2007
304 pages; ISBN 9781420005288
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Title: Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing
Author: Stuart Bradley
 
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