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Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data

Principles and Practices, Second Edition

Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data by Russell G. Congalton
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Why Map?

Why Assess the Accuracy of a Map?

Types of Map Accuracy Assessment

Critical Steps in Accuracy Assessment

Organization of the Book

The History of Map Accuracy Assessment

How Maps Are Made

History of Accuracy Assessment

Positional Accuracy

What Is Positional Accuracy?

What Are the Common Standards for Positional Accuracy?

Positional Accuracy Assessment Design and Sample Selection

How Is Positional Accuracy Analyzed?


Appendix 3.1: Determining the Required Sample Size

Thematic Accuracy

Non-Site-Specific Assessments

Site-Specific Assessments

Sample Design Considerations

What Are the Thematic Map Classes to Be Assessed?

What Is the Appropriate Sample Unit?

How Many Samples Should Be Taken?

How Should the Samples Be Chosen?

Final Considerations

Reference Data Collection

What Should Be the Source of the Reference Data?

How Should the Reference Data Be Collected?

When Should the Reference Data Be Collected?

Ensuring Objectivity and Consistency

Basic Analysis Techniques



Conditional Kappa

Weighted Kappa

Compensation for Chance Agreement

Confidence Limits

Area Estimation/Correction

Analysis of Differences in the Error Matrix

Errors in the Reference Data

Sensitivity of the Classification Scheme to Observer Variability

Inappropriateness of the Remote Sensing Data Employed to Make the Map

Mapping Error


Appendix 8.1: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve: Land Cover Mapping Classification Key

Fuzzy Accuracy Assessment

Expanding the Major Diagonal of the Error Matrix

Measuring Map Class Variability

The Fuzzy Error Matrix Approach


Case Study

Accuracy Assessment for the NOAA Next-Generation C-CAP Pilot Project

Overview of the Case Study

Design of the Accuracy Assessment

Data Collection


Lessons Learned

Appendix 10.1: Decision Rules for the Classification Scheme

Advanced Topics

Change Detection

Multilayer Assessments

Appendix 11.1: Class Descriptions of the 2005 NLCD Land Cover



CRC Press; December 2008
210 pages; ISBN 9781420055139
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Title: Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data
Author: Russell G. Congalton; Kass Green
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