ContentsList of Illustrations000Preface000Acknowledgments000Introduction0001. The Spanish Translation (2003)0002. Starry, Starry Night (2005)0003. Sharks and Rays (2003)0004. First Documented Shark Attack in the Americas, circa AD 1000 (2003)0005. The Age of Reptiles (2003)0006. Catch of the Day (2007)0007. Birdland (2006) (cowritten by Dr. David Steadman) 0008. Gone Fishin' (2004)0009. In the Beginning, God Created Fish (2004)00010. Herbs, Fish, and Other Scum and Vermin (2003)00011. The Chip-Chip Gatherers (2007)00012. Eats, Shoots, and Leaves (2004)00013. Eat Roots and Leave (2004)00014. If You Like Pina Coladas . . . (2005)00015. Boat Trips (2006)00016. Partying, Taino Style (2007)00017. Caves (2006)00018. Birds of a Feather (2005)00019. Cannibals! (2006)00020. Obeah and Zombies: The African Connection (2005)00021. The Stranger King (2007)00022. Anatomy of a Colony: A Taino Outpost in the Turks & Caicos Islands (1997)00023. Columbus, Hero or Heel? (1991)00024. One Small Step for a Man (1991)00025. A World on the Wax000Introduction to the Appendices: Words (Between the Lines of Age)000Appendix 1: Taino Names for Fishes000Appendix 2: Taino Names for Animals000Appendix 3: Other Taino Words000Bibliography000Index000Illustrations1. Feral donkeys on Grand Turk near North Wells0002. Map of the insular Caribbean showing culture areas0003. Columbus claiming possession of his first landfall in the Bahamas (Guanahani)0004. MC-6 site map showing plazas surrounded by midden concentrations and structural remains0005. Alignments at MC-6 between the east-west stone alignments, the central stone, and the structural foundations surrounding the plaza as they relate to the rising and setting of the summer solstice sun and various stars0006. Drawing of the constellation Orion with lines added to depict the "one-legged man"0007. Burial number 17, a twenty-nine-year-old male who was fatally attacked by a tiger shark more than one thousand years ago0008. Close-up view of tiger shark tooth marks on lateral and posterior surface of humeral shaft0009. Extreme close-up of the shark tooth damage00010. Picnic area at Guantanamo Naval Base reminding people not to feed the iguanas00011. Rock iguana bones from GT-3 on Grand Turk00012. The Taino word baracutey described the fish we today call barracuda00013. The barracuda is a dangerous predator that has numerous razor-sharp pointed teeth00014. Drilled barracuda tooth pendant from Site AR-39 (Rio Tanama Site 2) in Puerto Rico00015. Bones found in excavations of Indian cave, Middle Caicos, from both living and extinct species of birds00016. Flamingo tongue shell with two rough perforations, possibly used as a fishing lure or line sinker, from Site Ceiba 11, Puerto Rico00017. Perforated clam and oyster shells (possible net or line sinkers), from Site Ceiba 11, Puerto Rico00018. Notched stone net sinkers (potala) from the site of Ile a rat, Haiti00019. Shell scrapers made from two species of clams, from Site Ceiba 11, Puerto Rico00020. Bill Keegan removing a conch from its shell in the manner of the Tainos00021. Shell bead necklace reconstructed from conch and jewel box shell disk beads excavated from the Governor's Beach site, Grand Turk00022. Manioc roots00023. Ceramic griddle fragments from Site AR-39 (Rio Tanama Site 2) in Puerto Rico00024. Map showing the shallow banks north of Hispaniola00025. Canoe paddle from the Coralie site, Grand Turk00026. Photo of ship etchings in doorframe of Turks & Caicos Loyalist Plantation00027. Taino table used for inhaling cohoba carved in the form of a bird, from Jamaica00028. Trumpet made from Atlantic Triton's trumpet shell excavated from the Governor's Beach site, Grand Turk00029. Painted Taino image (pictograph) in cave in Parque del Este, Dominican Republic00030. Petroglyphs recorded in 1912 by Theodoor de Booy near Jacksonville, East Caicos00031. Petroglyphs recorded in 1912 by Theodoor de Booy on Rum Cay, Bahamas00032. Owl image on modeled pottery adorno from Jamaica00033. Line drawing of a perforated and incised belt ornament made from a human skull00034. Wooden statue of Opiyelguobiran, the dog god who carried spirits to the world of the dead00035. Close-up of porcupine fish00036. Pottery effigy vessel in the shape of a porcupine fish from the Governor's Beach site, Grand Turk00037. Archaeological excavations at the Coralie site in 1996, Grand Turk00038. Stone-and-conch-shell-lined hearth on which an overturned sea turtle carapace was used to cook a meal, Coralie site, Grand Turk00039. Pigeon sitting on the head of the statue of Columbus in Parque Colon, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic00040. Sunset behind the Pitons, St. Lucia000Plates1. Saladoid pot stand from Grenada2. Reconstructed Taino houses (bohio) on San Salvador, Bahamas3. Cleared area of stone-lined courtyard at the middle of the site of MC-6 on Middle Caicos4. Southern stingray over a reef in the Turks & Caicos Islands5. Worked shark teeth from the site of MC-6 on Middle Caicos6. Large rock iguana on Guantanamo Naval Base7. Stoplight parrotfish jawbone8. Stoplight parrotfish9. Broken ceramic sherds from the site of Ile a rat, Haiti10. Land crabs (juey), Delectable Bay, Acklins Islands, Bahamas11. Chitons and nerites living on rocky intertidal shores in the Turks & Caicos Islands12. Whole breadfruits roasting in roadside firepit, Boston Bay, Jamaica13. Bougainvillea and Casaurina: Grand Turk's imported landscape14. Handcrafted dinghy 15. Handmade raft from HaitiPlates follow page 000PrefaceThe gray beard (Bill, not Betsy) is telling. Combined, the two of us have spent forty-five years conducting archaeological research in the Caribbean. Bill started in 1978, and Betsy in 1992. Over the years we have directed research projects in Trinidad, Grenada, St. Lucia, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica, Grand Cayman, the Turks & Caicos Islands, and throughout the Bahamas. We have also had the good fortune to visit many of the other islands in the Caribbean.Our experiences have been remarkable. We've walked hundreds of miles of Caribbean coastline, dodged drug smugglers, camped on beaches miles from humanity, seen the night sky in the total absence of other light, scuba dived in pristine waters, searched for glass fishing floats on beaches that no one ever visits, and enjoyed the wonders of nature that surrounded us. Most of all, wherever we went, we were welcomed by the friendly people who today live in these islands. It is an understatement to say that we were welcomed with open arms; it is more accurate to say that they adopted us!The main reason we made these trips was to study the lifeways of the peoples who lived in the Caribbean before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Sadly, harsh treatment and European diseases extinguished their culture, a culture we today call Taino (also known as Arawak). In an effort to repay our debt to the past and the present we began writing a series of short essays called "Talking Taino." The bottom line for each essay was showing the relationship between the Tainos of the past and the present natural history of the islands. Our goal has been to bring the past to life and to highlight commonalities between past and present. We did so by emphasizing Taino words and beliefs about the natural world.Most of the essays have a Taino word list and English translation. The most comprehensive discussion of Caribbean languages was published by Julian Granberry and Gary Vescelius (2004). It should be noted that Taino was not a written language, and thus there are a variety of spellings for the same word (e.g., zemi and cemi, Xaragua and Jaragua). The main issue is finding the letters that appropriately express particular pronunciations. In this regard, Granberry and Vescelius do an excellent job of capturing the proper pronunciation of Taino words. Nevertheless, we have chosen some spellings included in Spanish publications that we feel better capture the Taino language.We encourage anyone who is interested in talking Taino to consult the phonetic spellings provided in the book by Granberry and Vescelius, because the Spanish spellings for these words often yield pronunciations that would be spelled differently in English. For example, gua is pronounced wa; and the consonant c can have a hard or soft pronunciation (thus, conuco is pronounced konuko, while cemi is pronounced seme). Speaking the language requires specific knowledge of translation and pronunciation.We initially wanted to call this collection "Buffalo Sojourn." The first meaning was a play on words that we hoped reggae fans would recognize immediately ("Buffalo Soldier"). A key line from Bob Marley's song is, "If you know your history, then you will know where you're coming from." Our intent in writing these essays was to provide a more detailed introduction to the natural history of the islands.There was also a more personal connection. We began work on several archaeological research projects in the Turks & Caicos Islands in 1989, and were invited to Jamaica by Mr. Tony Clarke in 1998. One of our first (nonarchaeological) discoveries was that many of the feral donkeys that we had seen wandering the streets of Grand Turk had been airlifted to Jamaica, and were now thriving in the lush pastures of Tony's Paradise Park dairy farm. Tony was looking for an archaeologist to investigate the site on his property, and heard of us during the process of arranging the transfer of donkeys. We have worked for donkeys in the past, but this is the first time one got us a job! Several years later we encountered many new residents. Fidel Castro presented the prime minister of Jamaica with twelve water buffalos as a special gift in recognition of their many years of cooperation. This was a very practical gift, and it shows that heads of state are not always motivated by pomp and circumstance. But no water buffalo would want to live on the streets of Kingston, so they were distributed to several farms in the country, and four of them were sent to Paradise Park. The hope was that they would eat the water hyacinth that was clogging the Dean's Valley River, but they actually preferred pasture grass. We always thought that grass was grass, but these farms actually plant special pasture grasses for their dairy cows. The donkeys and water buffalos are thrilled! We spent five field seasons at Paradise Park working near our donkey friends from Grand Turk and the water buffalos from Cuba.Very different worlds were thrust together into a common history five hundred years ago. We hope you will appreciate with us the wonders of the Caribbean world, the peoples who lived there in the past, and those who live there today. They are, whether you know it or not, an integral part of who you are.AcknowledgmentsThere are far too many people to thank for their assistance on our various projects. First and foremost we met a strong and dedicated ally. Kathy Borsuk, managing editor of the International Magazine of the Turks & Caicos Islands, called Times of the Islands, embraced our concept. Most of the chapters in this book originally were published there. Kathy has created a phenomenal publication that reaches well beyond the Turks & Caicos Islands. We encourage everyone to subscribe, or at the very least, visit the magazine's web page: <www.timespub.tc.>Most of these essays benefited greatly from discussions with our colleagues at the Florida Museum of Natural History. In particular, Dr. David Steadman (curator of Ornithology) coauthored one of the papers ("Birdland"). We appreciate his permission and willingness to include that essay in this collection and thank him for his permission to reproduce several of his photographs. We also appreciate the support of Dr. Douglas S. Jones, director of the Florida Museum of Natural History, for his support and permission to publish the shark attack essay that originally was published on the museum's web pages. Finally, VISTA magazine solicited articles on Columbus for their Sunday newspaper supplement. We appreciate their permission to include two of those here. We thank Dr. Peter Siegel for providing photos from the excavations at Maisabel, Puerto Rico, and we greatly appreciate the beautiful fish photographs provided by Barbara Shively and the artifact photographs provided by Corbett McP. Torrence.We are especially fortunate that The University of Alabama Press found our work of sufficient interest to collect these writings in a book. It has been a pleasure to work with the staff at the press.Talking TainoIntroductionThey are known today as Lucayan Tainos: an anglicized version of the Spanish "Lucayos," which derives from the Arawakan words Lukkunu Kairi ("island men"). The Lucayans share a common ancestry with the Taino societies of Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Jamaica (the Greater Antilles), who they separated from around AD 600 when they began to colonize the Turks & Caicos and the Bahamas (hereafter called the Lucayan Islands). By 1492, they had settled all of the larger Lucayan Islands. In addition, they continued to exchange goods with other Tainos living in the Greater Antilles.To date, most of what has been written about the Tainos has drawn upon the written record left by the Spanish. However, because the chronicles were written to serve political objectives, be they for or against the native peoples, and because the chroniclers themselves were limited in their abilities to understand a nonwestern culture, these documents are rife with errors and misinformation. The uncritical use of the historical record has hampered efforts to understand native West Indian societies. For although we continue to speak of Tainos as a single unified group, there were regional differences in language and culture, if not also in race. One needs look only to the Soviet Union or the former Yugoslavia to be reminded of the fragility of national identities. This introduction draws on the last two decades of anthropological scholarship to present a brief chronicle of the development and extinction of Lucayan Taino culture.<b>Origins</b>The origins of the Lucayan Tainos are traced to the banks of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. As early as 2100 BC villages of horticulturalists who used pottery vessels to cook their food had been established along the Middle Orinoco. During the ensuing two millennia their population increased in numbers, and they expanded down river and outward along the Orinoco's tributaries to the coasts of Venezuela, the Guianas, and Trinidad. Their movements are easily traced because the pottery they manufactured is so distinctive. Called Saladoid after the archaeological site of Saladero, Venezuela, their vessels were decorated with white-on-red painted, modeled and incised, and crosshatched decorations (see plate 1).Saladoid peoples expanded through the Antilles at a rapid pace. Because their earliest settlements, which date before 400 BC, are in the Leeward Islands, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico, the inescapable conclusion is that most of the Lesser Antilles were leapfrogged in a direct jump from Venezuela/Trinidad to Puerto Rico and its neighbors. Moreover, the conditions, which stimulated the initial migration into the Antilles, continued to fuel dispersal from South America bringing a variety of related ethnic groups into the Antilles over the next millennium.Saladoid peoples lived in small villages and practiced swidden agriculture in which a variety of different crops were cultivated in small gardens, a practice very similar to present-day "casual cultivation." Due to the limited fertility of the soil gardens, they were cultivated for only a few years before new gardens had to be cleared. Frequent movement of village sites is evident from the absence of deeply stratified sites. A number of the early sites are located inland on watercourses adjacent to prime agricultural land, but most Saladoid sites are in coastal settings. In both settings, horticulture was the primary source of food. At the inland sites land crab remains are the main component, while at coastal villages the shells of marine mollusks and bones of fishes were the most common food remains in the trash middens.For some reason the Saladoid advance stalled after they had colonized eastern Hispaniola. Irving Rouse (1992) has suggested that a large and well-established population of hunter-gatherers barred their forward progress, and that the Saladoid population needed time to grow and refine their adaptation to island life before the frontier was breached. Some of the resident foragers may have been assimilated before further expansion took place.The next phase of cultural development is announced by a marked change in material culture. Elaborate pottery decorations disappear, especially in frontier locations where most of the pottery was undecorated except for occational red slip or simple modeling. These simplified designs have been classified as the Ostionoid series, named for the archaeological site of Ostiones in western Puerto Rico. By AD 600 the "Ostionoid peoples" had resumed the advance of their Saladoid ancestors and had begun to expand along both coasts of Hispaniola. Expansion along the southern coast led to the colonization of Jamaica, while movement through the northern valleys led to the colonization of eastern Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Turks & Caicos.Given the modern barren landscape of the Lucayan Islands it is often asked why anyone would leave the fertile valleys of the Greater Antilles to settle this island chain. The answer is that although the Lucayan Islands are today covered by low scrub vegetation and there is a noticeable lack of fresh water, these conditions did not prevail five hundred years ago. In fact, the Lucayan Islands would have been quite attractive to small groups of horticulturalists who farmed the loamy soils and relied on the sea for fish and transport.<b>Diet</b>Spanish records indicate that the Lucayan Tainos cultivated as many as fifty different plants, including varieties of sweet and bitter manioc, sweet potatoes, cocoyams, beans, gourds, chili peppers, corn, cotton, tobacco, bixa, genip, groundnuts, guava, and papaya. The carbonized remains of corn, chili peppers, palm fruits, unidentified tubers (probably manioc and sweet potato), and gourds are among the plant remains identified in West Indian sites. At least half of the Lucayan Taino diet came from plant foods. Manioc (cassava) was the staple, followed by sweet potato. Corn was cultivated but apparently was of secondary importance.Manioc tubers require special processing because they contain poisonous hydrocyanic acid. Sweet manioc has such small quantities of the poison it can be prepared like sweet potato--peeled and boiled. Bitter manioc, however, requires a more elaborate procedure which involves peeling, grinding or mashing, and squeezing the mash in a basket tube to remove the poisonous juices (see chapter 13). After the juice is removed the paste is dried and sieved for use as flour. Water is added to the flour to make the pancake-like cassava bread, which is cooked on a flat clay griddle. Fragments of these griddles and large ceramic bowls, both of which were made from red loam and crushed, burned conch shell, are common in Lucayan Island archaeological sites.The poisonous manioc juice is not discarded. It is boiled to release the poison and then used as the liquid base for "pepper pot" stew. Adding chili peppers, other vegetables, meat and fish to the simmering manioc juice makes pepper pot. This slow simmering stew allowed food that would otherwise spoil to be preserved and available for meals throughout the day. Today in South America, pepper pot is still eaten with cassava bread.The other half of the diet came from creatures of the land and the sea. The few land animals that were available (iguana, crabs, and a cat-size rodent called hutia) were highly prized, but were only available in limited quantities. The major source of animal protein came from the coastal marine environment. Marine turtles and monk seals were available seasonally, but the main foods were the fishes and mollusks who feed in the grass flat/patch reef habitats between the barrier coral reef and the beach: parrotfish, grouper, snapper, bonefish, queen conch, urchins, nerites, chitons, and clams. Fish were captured with nets, basket traps, spears, bow and arrow, and weirs. The latter involved building check-dams across the mouths of tidal creeks, which allowed fishes to enter at high tide but prevented their escape when the tide changed. Meat and fish were grilled with leftovers added to the pepper pot.When you consider the number of ways Lucayan Tainos could satisfy their hunger, the islands are noteworthy for the abundance of options. It is difficult to imagine that anyone ever went hungry, a conclusion confirmed by the preliminary examination of human skeletal remains, which indicate that the Lucayan Islanders enjoyed remarkably good health and nutrition. They certainly did not suffer from the nutritional and diet-related disorders that plagued other horticulturalists in the West Indies and elsewhere.<b>Society and Village Life</b>The Tainos lived in large multifamily houses. In Hispaniola there were two kinds of houses: the rectangular caney and the round-to-oval bohio, which had a high-pitched, conical thatched roof (see plate 2). Although a probable exaggeration, the early sixteenth-century Spanish chronicler Bartolome de las Casas reported that some houses were occupied by 40 to 60 heads of household (roughly 250 men, women, and children). Households were formed around a group of related females. Grandmother, mother, sisters, and daughters lived together and cooperated in farming, childrearing, food preparation, and craft production. Men, by virtue of their absence from communities during periods of long-distance trade and/or warfare, were peripheral to the household. The importance of females as the foundation of society was expressed by tracing descent through the female line to a mythical female ancestress. This "matrilineal" social organization is common throughout the world.The household's belongings were stored on the floors and in the rafters of the houses. Cotton hammocks for sleeping were strung between the central supports and eaves. Excavations of a house floor at a site in the Turks & Caicos Islands revealed ash deposits, which may have come from small, smoky fires used to control insect pests and to warm the house at night. Cooking was probably done in sheds outside the main house.Most villages in the Lucayan Islands were composed of houses aligned atop a sand dune with the ocean in front and a marshy area behind. Quite likely, these marshy areas provided ready access to fresh water before the islands were deforested. In addition, many sites are located just offshore on small cays.Lucayan Taino sites often occur in pairs, which reflects either cooperation between socially allied communities or sequential settlements in the same location. The former possibility is more likely because it is the men who most often were the leaders, even in matrilineages, and especially with regard to external relations. In a matrilineal society, your mother's brother, and not your father, is the most important male in your life because he heads your family's lineage. However, if men are needed by their matrilineage, yet are expected to live in their wife's village, then social relations will be unstable. These competing demands can be balanced by establishing villages in close proximity, thus reducing the distances that men must travel to participate in their lineage affairs.In the Greater Antilles a slightly different type of community plan predominates. Here the houses are arranged around central plazas. The plazas were used for public displays, ritual dances, recording astronomical events, and for the Taino version of the ball game. The chief's house, typically located at one end of the plaza, stored the village idols and spirit representations called cemis.<b>Religion</b>The Taino pantheon of cemis was divided by the dichotomies of gender and cultural/noncultural. There were principal male and female spirits of fruitfulness: Yocahu, the giver of manioc, and Attabeira, the mother goddess. They both were attended by twin spirits. Maquetaurie Guayaba, Lord of the Dead, and Guabancex, Mistress of the Hurricane, ruled the anticultural world. They too were attended by sets of twins. Cemis played an active role in the affairs of humans, and they served to distinguish between that which was human, cultural, and pleasing and that which was nonhuman, anticultural, and foul. But as exemplified by the twins, the Tainos recognized that the spirits of the world could simultaneously have positive and negative characteristics. For example, rains are good when they arrive at the right time and in the right quantity, but can also devastate agricultural lands when the timing is wrong or too much rain falls. The Taino viewed their world in a delicate balance, and they attended to their spirits in order to maintain this balance.<b>Political Organization</b>By the time Europeans arrived, Taino society had two main divisions. The rulers of the community were of a noble class (called niTainos), which included chiefs, shamans, and other elites who held positions of authority. Chiefs (called caciques) ruled at several levels, from the paramount caciques that ruled large regions, to district leaders who were allied to a paramount, to headmen and clanlords who ruled at the village level. With noble birth being the main prerequisite of this rank, it should be noted that women could also be chiefs. Between caciques of all levels, alliances were formed through marriages.Supporting the rulers were large numbers of commoners. Blood and marriage (kinship) were the threads that bound commoners to caciques. There was also a level below the commoner class, which the Spanish described as a class of servants called naborias. Naborias were once thought to be slaves, but a careful reading of the early Spanish chronicles indicates that they served through a sense of obligation and were not chattel.Caciques organized villages into regional polities who competed with one another for a variety of resources. There is increasing evidence that, contrary to the "peaceful Arawak" stereotype, the Taino chiefdoms made war on one another prior to the arrival of the Spanish.Caciques also organized long-distance trade. Travel between islands was accomplished in canoes dug out of a single log. The largest of which could carry approximately ninety passengers. Traders sought both domestic trade items (salt, dried fish, and conch) and exotic materials from other chiefdoms and from neighboring islands. The red jewel box shell (Chama sarda) disk beads that were manufactured throughout the Lucayan Islands are an example of an exotic good. These beads were woven into belts that served to record alliances between chiefdoms. These and other exotic materials served to reinforce the authority of the caciques to whom access to these goods was restricted. By one account, Taino caciques held authority of life or death over their subjects.<b>Warfare</b>When Columbus set foot on the island he called San Salvador, young men carrying spears who were there to defend their village met him. Other encounters between the Spanish and the Tainos also point to the importance of warfare in Taino society. For instance, when Columbus embarked on the conquest of central Hispaniola in 1494 he was challenged by an army of up to fifteen thousand warriors (although this may have been an exaggeration). Moreover, shortly after the Spanish arrested Caonabo, the cacique of the central Hispaniola region of Maguana, Bartholomew Columbus was passing along the Neiba River, which formed the boundary between the regions of Xaragua and Maguana. Here he encountered an army from Xaragua that was probably in the area to co-opt villages that had previously been allied with the deposed Chief Caonabo. Taino social organization also points to the presence of an organized and well-armed militia.<b>Genocide</b>Within a generation of the arrival of the Spanish, the native peoples of the Lucayan Islands were extinct. In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon sailed through the Lucayan Islands on his way to Florida. He reported that he encountered only one inhabitant, an old native man still living in the Turks & Caicos Islands. Other expeditions followed, including two in 1520, which failed to encounter any native peoples in these islands.The fate of the Lucayan Tainos can be traced to the mines on Hispaniola and to the pearl beds of Cubagua Island off the coast of Venezuela. By 1509, the Spanish governor of Santo Domingo had convinced King Ferdinand that there was a critical shortage of labor on Hispaniola. In response the king ordered that all peoples from the neighboring islands be relocated to Hispaniola. A slaving consortium was soon formed in Concepcion de la Vega, although documents in the archives in Seville suggest that the practice of enslaving Lucayans had begun much earlier. The contact period chronicler Peter Martyr reported that forty thousand Lucayans were brought to Hispaniola. The total population of the islands was probably twice that number when children, old people, and others who died are included. A total population of forty to eighty thousand Lucayans is consistent with archaeological deposits in these islands.When Columbus landed at Guanahani in 1492 he was met by people whose simple dress and material technology belied their social and political complexity. Theirs was a vibrant culture in the process of filling up the northern and western Lucayan Islands at the same time they were competing among themselves for political and economic control of the central islands. Moreover, had the Spanish never arrived, the Lucayan Tainos might soon have been subject to demands from the Classic Tainos on Hispaniola who were already establishing bases or outposts in the Turks & Caicos and Great Inagua by the middle of the thirteenth century. Instead, the Lucayan Tainos are remembered as the first native peoples to challenge Columbus and the first to be extinguished.