1910 OSHA Guide
The 1910 OSHA Guide offers quick access to OSHA's word-for-word Part 1910 workplace safety regulations - tab-divided for easy searching. It covers several workplace safety topics vital to OSHA compliance:
- Hazard communication
- Forklift safety
- Machine guarding
- Electrical safety
- Personal protective equipment
- And many more
The detailed subject index will simplify searches for Part 1910 regs. Part 1903 and 1904 regs are also included.
This timesaving reference puts the regs relating to these Part 1910 topics at your fingertips:
- Walking-working surfaces
- Powered platforms
- Health and environmental control
- Hazardous materials
- Personal protective equipment
- Medical and first aid
- Fire protection
- Materials handling and storage
- Machine guarding
- Hand and portable powered tools
- Welding, cutting, and brazing
- Electrical safety
- Commercial diving operations
- Toxic and hazardous substances
It also covers OSHA's Part 1903 requirements for inspections, citations and penalties, as well as Part 1904 requirements for recording injuries and illnesses. The detailed reference section provides contact information for OSHA offices, consultation services, and associations.
Title: 1910 OSHA Guide
Author: J. J. Keller
APPENDIX D TO §1910.1043PULMONARY FUNCTION STANDARDSFOR COTTON DUST STANDARD
The spirometric measurements of pulmonary function shall conform tothe following minimum standards, and these standards are not intendedto preclude additional testing or alternate methods which can be determinedto be superior.
a. The instrument shall be accurate to within ±50 milliliters or within±3 percent of reading, whichever is greater.
b. The instrument should be capable of measuring vital capacity from0 to 7 liters BTPS.
c. The instrument shall have a low inertia and offer low resistance toairflow such that the resistance to airflow at 12 liters per second must beless than 1.5 cm H2O/(liter/sec).
d. The zero time point for the purpose of timing the FEV1 shall be determinedby extrapolating the steepest portion of the volume time curveback to the maximal inspiration volume (1, 2, 3, 4) or by an equivalentmethod.
e. Instruments incorporating measurements of airflow to determine volumeshall conform to the same volume accuracy stated in (a) of this sectionwhen presented with flow rates from at least 0 to 12 liters per second.
f. The instrument or user of the instrument must have a means of correctingvolumes to body temperature saturated with water vapor (BTPS)under conditions of varying ambient spirometer temperatures and barometricpressures.
g. The instrument used shall provide a tracing or display of either flowversus volume or volume versus time during the entire forced expiration.A tracing or display is necessary to determine whether the patient hasperformed the test properly. The tracing must be stored and available forrecall and must be of sufficient size that hand measurements may bemade within requirement of paragraph (a) of this section. If a paper recordis made it must have a paper speed of at least 2 cm/sec and a volumesensitivity of at least 10.0 mm of chart per liter of volume.
h. The instrument shall be capable of accumulating volume for a minimumof 10 seconds and shall not stop accumulating volume before (1)the volume change for a 0.5 second interval is less than 25 milliliters, or(2) the flow is less than 50 milliliters per second for a 0.5 second interval.
i. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1second (FEV1.0) measurements shall comply with the accuracy requirementsstated in paragraph (a) of this section. That is, they should be accuratelymeasured to ±50 ml or within ±3 percent of reading, whicheveris greater.
j. The instrument must be capable of being calibrated in the field withrespect to the FEV1 and FVC. This calibration of the FEV1 and FVCmaybe either directly or indirectly through volume and time base measurements.The volume calibration source should provide a volume displacementof at least 2 liters and should be accurate to within ±30 milliliters.
II. TECHNIQUE FOR MEASUREMENT OF FORCED VITALCAPACITY MANEUVER
a. Use of a nose clip is recommended but not required. The proceduresshall be explained in simple terms to the patient who shall beinstructed to loosen any tight clothing and stand in front of the apparatus.The subject may sit, but care should be taken on repeat testing that thesame position be used and, if possible, the same spirometer. Particularattention shall be given to insure that the chin is slightly elevated with theneck slightly extended. The patient shall be instructed to make a full inspirationfrom a normal breathing pattern and then blow into the apparatus,without interruption, as hard, fast, and completely as possible. Atleast three forced expirations shall be carried out. During the maneuvers,the patient shall be observed for compliance with instruction. The expirationsshall be checked visually for reproducibility from flow-volume or volume-time tracings or displays. The following efforts shall be judged unacceptablewhen the patient:
1. Has not reached full inspiration preceding the forced expiration,
2. Has not used maximal effort during the entire forced expiration,
3. Has not continued the expiration for at least 5 seconds or until anobvious plateau in the volume time curve has occurred,
4. Has coughed or closed his glottis,
5. Has an obstructed mouthpiece or a leak around the mouthpiece(obstruction due to tongue being placed in front of mouthpiece, false teethfalling in front of mouthpiece, etc.)
6. Has an unsatisfactory start of expiration, one characterized by excessivehesitation (or false starts), and therefore not allowing back extrapolationof time 0 (extrapolated volume on the volume time tracingmust be less than 10 percent of the FVC.)
7. Has an excessive variability between the three acceptable curves.The variation between the two largest FVCs and FEV1s of the three satisfactorytracings should not exceed 10 percent or ±100 milliliters, whicheveris greater.
b. Periodic and routine recalibration of the instrument or method forrecording FVC and FEV1.0 should be performed using a syringe or othervolume source of at least 2 liters.
III. INTERPRETATION OF SPIROGRAM
a. The first step in evaluating a spirogram should be to determinewhether or not the patient has performed the test properly or as describedin II above. From the three satisfactory tracings, the forced vital capacity(FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) shall be measuredand recorded. The largest observed FVC and largest observedFEV1 shall be used in the analysis regardless of the curve(s) on whichthey occur.
b. The following guidelines are recommended by NIOSH for the evaluationand management of workers exposed to cotton dust. It is importantto note that employees who show reductions in FEV1/FVC ratio below .75or drops in Monday FEV1 of 5 percent or greater on their initial screeningexam, should be re-evaluated within a month of the first exam. Thosewho show consistent decrease in lung function, as shown on the followingtable, should be managed as recommended.
IV. QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONNEL ADMINISTERING THETEST
Technicians who perform pulmonary function testing should have thebasic knowledge required to produce meaningful results. Training consistingof approximately 16 hours of formal instruction should cover the followingareas.
a. Basic physiology of the forced vital capacity maneuver and the determinantsof airflow limitation with emphasis on the relation to reproducibilityof results.
b. Instrumentation requirements including calibration procedures,sources of error and their correction.
c. Performance of the testing including subject coaching, recognition ofimproperly performed maneuvers and corrective actions.
d. Data quality with emphasis on reproducibility.
e. Actual use of the equipment under supervised conditions.
f. Measurement of tracings and calculations of results.