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Ultrasonics

Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition

Ultrasonics by Dale Ensminger
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Ultrasonics: A Broad Field
Introduction
Brief Early History
Underwater Sound (SONAR)
Medical and Biological Ultrasonics
Industrial Ultrasonics
Nondestructive Testing/Evaluation
Ultrasonics in Electronics
Physical Acoustics
Ultrasonic Systems: Transmitters and Receivers
Low-Intensity Applications
High-Intensity Applications
Modern Ultrasonics: An Interdisciplinary Field
References

Elastic Wave Propagation and Associated Phenomena
Introduction
Power Delivered to an Oscillating System
The Velocity of Sound
Impingement of an Ultrasonic Wave on a Boundary between Two Media
Transmission Through Thin Plates
Diffraction
Standing Waves
Doppler Effect
Superposition of Waves
Attenuation of an Ultrasonic Wave
Relaxation
High-Power Phenomena
References

Fundamental Equations Employed in Ultrasonic Design and Applications
Introduction
Simple Spring–Mass Oscillator
Wave Equations
Solution of the Plane-Wave Equation, Linear System
The Transverse-Wave Equation
Solution of the Transverse-Wave Equation
Plate Waves
References

Design of Ultrasonic Horns for High Power Applications
Introduction
The Horn Equations
Types of Horns
Combining Sections of Different Configurations for Practical Applications
Effect of Damping on the Operation of Horns
Wide Horns and Horns of Large Cross Section
Advanced Horn and System Design
References

Basic Design of Ultrasonic Transducers
Introduction
Equivalent Circuits
Piezoelectric Transducers
Magnetostrictive Transducers
Electromagnetic Devices
Pneumatic Devices (Whistles)
Mechanical Devices
Some Special High-Frequency Transducers
Transducer Generated Wave-Fields
General Remarks
References

Determining Properties of Materials
Introduction
Approximate Methods for Measurement of Velocity and Attenuation
Methods of Measuring Velocity of Sound
Low-Frequency Measurements of Elastic Moduli and Poisson’s Ratio
Density, Viscosity and Particle Size Measurements
Determining Properties of Plastics and High Polymers
General Comments on Measuring Acoustical Properties of Materials
References

Nondestructive Testing: Basic Methods and General Considerations
Introduction
Basic Methods
Factors Affectinc Resolution and Sensitivity
Unconventional Techniques Used for Nondestructive Testing
Instrumentation
References

Use of Ultrasonics in the Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Metals
Introduction
Internal Structure of Metals
Inspection of Basic Structures and Products
Inspection of Hot Metals
Determination of Bond Integrity
Thickness Measurements
Inspection of Solder Joints
References

Use of Ultrasonics in the Inspection and Characterization of Nonmetals
Introduction
Concrete
Ceramics and Ceramic Coatings
Timber, Wood, and Wood Composites
Paper
Leather
Plastics, Polymers, and Composites
Adhesive Bond Integrity
References

Imaging, Process Control, and Miscellaneous Low-Intensity Applications
Introduction
Ultrasonic Imaging
Process Monitoring, Measurement, and Control
Underwater Applications
SAW Sensors and Delay Lines
Application in Gases
References

Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Basic Mechanisms and Effects
Introduction
General Discussion
Mechanical Effects
Chemical Effects: Sonochemistry
Metallurgical Effects
References

Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics Based on Mechanical Effects
Introduction
Cleaning
Machining, Forming, and Joining
Liquid Atomization and Droplet Formation
Agglomeration and Flocculation
Drying and Dewatering
Agricultural Applications
Pest Control
Control of Foams
Coating Materials and Particles
Preparation of Carbon Spheres
Glassware Testing
Dispersions and De-Agglomeration
References

Applications of Ultrasonics Based on Chemical Effects—Sonochemistry
Introduction
Sonochemistry
Industrial Processes
Miscellaneous Chemical Effects and Applications
Electrolysis and Electroplating
Preparation of Nanomaterials
References

Medical Applications of Ultrasonic Energy
Introduction
Power Measurements and Dosages
Basic Mechanisms and Principles
Diagnosis
Therapy
Surgery
Tissue Characterization
High-Frequency Imaging/Acoustic Microscopy
Ancillary Application of Biomedical and Research Applications
References
Glossary
Appendix A
Appendix B
Index

CRC Press; September 2011
730 pages; ISBN 9781420020274
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Title: Ultrasonics
Author: Dale Ensminger; Leonard J. Bond
 
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