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Delay Tolerant Networks

Protocols and Applications

Delay Tolerant Networks by Athanasios V. Vasilakos
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Delay Tolerant Networking
Introduction
     History of Delay Tolerant Networking
     A Delay Tolerant Network 
     Requirements on DTNs
The Architecture 
     Overlay Architecture
     Store and Forward Message Switching
     Routing and Forwarding
     Fragmentation and Reassembly 
     Custody Transfer
The Bundle Protocol 
     Bundle Service 
     Bundle Format 
     Bundle Processing
Routing Schemes in DTNs 
     Routing Considerations 
     Classification of Routing Schemes 
     Replication-Based Routing
Open Issues in Delay-Tolerant Networking 
     Routing 
     Custody and Congestion 
     Security

DTN Routing: Taxonomy and Design
Introduction
Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks 
     Routing as Opportunistic Forwarding
     Message Replication
     Message Forwarding 
     Message Coding 
     DTN Routing as Resource Allocation
DTN Routing Utility Functions 
     Destination Dependent (DD) Utility
     Destination Independent (DI) Utility 
     Additional Considerations 
     Examples of DTN Routing Protocols
A Taxonomy of DTNs 
     Connectivity 
     Mobility 
     Node Resources
     Application Requirements
DTN Routing Design Guidelines
Case Studies 
     Pocket Switched Networks 
     Metropolitan Networks with Heterogeneous Nodes 
     Applications with Priorities

Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks
Introduction
Routing in Sparse Networks
The Epidemic Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Network
     The Properties of the Epidemic Routing Protocol 
     The Network Lifetime of the Epidemic Routing Protocol
The Analytical Model of the Epidemic Routing Protocol 
     The Statistics of Encounter Times 
     The Transitional Epidemic Routing Model 
     The Solution of the Epidemic Routing Model
The Restricted Epidemic Routing (RER) Protocols 
     The Exclusion (EX) Scheme 
     The Limited Time (LT) Scheme 
     The Limited Number of Copies (LC) Scheme
The Tradeoff Function of the Restricted Epidemic Routing 
     The Number of Copies and the Time Delay 
     Evaluation of the Tradeoff Function 
     The Network Lifetime of the RER Schemes
The Residual-Energy (RE) Scheme 
     The LC Scheme with Residual-Energy Information
Maximizing the Lifetime of the Delay Tolerant Networks 
     The Residual-Battery Information 
     The Comparison of Lifetime Performance
Summary and Concluding Remarks

A Routing-Compatible Credit-Based Incentive Scheme for DTNs
Introduction
Related Work
System Model and Design Goals 
     Network Model 
     Data Forwarding Strategy 
     Rewarding Model 
     Attack Model 
     Design Goals
The Proposed SMART Scheme 
     Pairing Technique 
     The Overview of SMART 
     The SMART Scheme 
     Efficiency Enhancement 
Performance Evaluation
     Cryptographic Overhead Evaluation 
     Simulation
Open Issues 
     Public Key Revocation in DTNs 
     Reputation Based Incentive Scheme
Conclusion

R-P2P: a Data-Centric Middleware for Delay Tolerant Applications 
Application Scenario
Related Works 
     Novelty of the Proposed Architecture
Sketch of the System 
     Data Retrieval 
     Diffusion of Advertisements
Functional Blocks 
     User Nodes 
     Throwbox Nodes
System Dimensioning 
     RP2P Design Space
     Application Requirements
     System Dimensioning
Preliminary Implementation 
     U-Hopper: The Mobile Part of R-P2P 
     Throwboxes
Conclusions
Acknowledgments

Mobile Peer-to-Peer Systems over Delay Tolerant Networks
Introduction
Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks 
     Overview 
     Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks 
     Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks
Delay Tolerant Networks 
     The Store-Carry-Forward Paradigm 
     MANETs as a Special Case of DTNs
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks For DTNs 
     Challenges 
     Unstructured Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks 
     Structured Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks 
     Summary and Open Problems
Conclusion

Delay-Tolerant Monitoring of Mobility-Assisted WSN
Introduction .
State of the Art
     Node-Centric Delay-Critical Monitoring Techniques 
     Region-Centric Delay-Critical Monitoring Techniques 
     Mobility-Assisted Delay-Tolerant Monitoring Techniques 
     Our Contributions Compared to Existing Approaches
System Model
gMAP: Mobility-Assisted Monitoring Using Global Maps
     Overview of Approach 
     Scenario Classification 
     Path Planning of ANs 
     Data Collection 
     eMap Construction
Evaluation 
     Path Planning Performance
     Data Collection and Map Construction Performance 
     Comparison to Related Work
Conclusions
Open Issues

Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks 
Introduction
Characteristics of VANET 
     Network Characteristics
Innovative Applications 
     Low Cost Digital Connectivity in Rural Areas
     Data Collection from Sensor Nodes 
     Cooperative Downloading 
     Miscellaneous Applications
Message Dissemination 
     MANET Forwarding Schemes and Their Limitations 
     Forwarding Schemes Suitable for VANET
Medium Access Control for VANET 
     Cooperative ARQ 
     802.11p MAC
Open Issues 
     Security Challenges 
     Acknowledgments 
     Addressing
     Emerging New Application
Conclusion

Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) Protocols for Space Communications
Introduction
Space Communications and DTPs for Space/Interplanetary Internet
     Overview of Space Communications 
     Performance Problems of TCP in Space 
     Data Transport Protocols for Space/Interplanetary Internet
DTN, BP, AND Convergence Layer Protocols 
     Overview of DTN 
     DTN for Space 
     Bundle Protocol (BP) 
     DTN Convergence Layer Protocol (CLP)
Recent Research and Experimental Activities on DTN for Space Communications
Summary
Open Issue
Acknowledgments

DTN and Satellite Communications
Introduction
Bundle Layer DTN Architecture Overview 
     End-to-End Reliability and Custody Transfer Option 
     DTN Concept Development
Satellite Channel Impairments and Possible Solutions 
     End-to-End TCP Enhancements and Other Transport Protocols Optimized for Satellite and Space Communications 
     Performance Enhancing Proxies (or "Protocol Accelerators") 
     The Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking Alternative
     Testbed and Tools Used in Performance Evaluations 
     Performance Evaluation
Scenario 2: Satellite Systems with Random Intermittent Endto-End Connectivity 
     TCP Resilience to Disruption 
     Analysis of DTN Behavior in the Presence of Disruption
     Performance Evaluation in a Realistic Case Study: Railway Satellite Communications 
Scenarios 3 and 4 
     Scenario 3: Satellite Systems with Scheduled Intermittent End-to-End-Connectivity
     Scenario 4: Satellite Systems without End-to-End Connectivity
Ongoing Research 
     NASA JPL October 2008 Experiments
     DTN Application to a Military Heterogeneous Network 
     DTN Application to the UK-DMC LEO System
Conclusions

CRC Press; November 2011
362 pages; ISBN 9781466513013
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Title: Delay Tolerant Networks
Author: Athanasios V. Vasilakos; Yan Zhang; Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos
 
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