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Reproductive Technologies as Global Form

Ethnographies of Knowledge, Practices, and Transnational Encounters

Stefan Beck(contrib.) ; Sven Bergmann(contrib.) ; Aditya Bharadwaj(contrib.) ; Sarah Franklin(contrib.) ; Zeynep Gurtin-Broadbent(contrib.) ; Viola Hörbst(contrib.) ; Marcia C. Inhorn(contrib.) ; Willemijn de Jong(contrib.) ; Maren Klotz(contrib.) ; Michi Knecht(contrib.) ; Eva-Maria Knoll(contrib.) ; Michal Nahman(contrib.) ; Nurhak Polat(contrib.) ; Bob Simpson(contrib.) ; Michi Knecht(ed.) ; Maren Klotz(ed.) ; Stefan Beck(ed.)
Reproductive Technologies as Global Form
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Seit vor 30 Jahren das erste »Reagenzglas- Baby« der Welt geboren wurde, haben sich In- vitro-Fertilisation (IVF) und andere Technologien »assistierter « Reproduktion weltweit verbreitet. Behandlung Suchende, Spenderinnen von Eizellen, Samenbanken und Ärzte agieren über nationale Grenzen hinweg, nicht selten entlang der Wohlstandsbruchlinien zwischen Ost und West und Nord und Süd. Die Autoren zeichnen in ethnografischen Studien die große Vielfalt lokaler Anwendungen von Reproduktionstechnologien auf vier Kontinenten nach und folgen gleichzeitig den transnationalen Routen des Medizinmarktes. Die Reproduktionsmedizin steht dabei beispielhaft für die biotechnologische Globalisierung.

In the thirty-five years since the first “test-tube baby,” in-vitro fertilization and other methods of reproductive assistance have become a common aspect of family life and medicine in affluent nations and, increasingly, throughout the world. How do persons seeking treatment, donors, and medical experts make use of these reproductive technologies? How in crossing borders between nations do they manage to evade legal and bioethical regulations? And how do they make sense of these new modes of making kinship against the backdrop of diverse worldviews and social settings? In bringing together a wide array of ethnographic studies this volume offers both a current snapshot of the complexity and diversity of local or national IVF-cultures and of emerging transnational forms of mobility, competition, inequality and collaboration. Reproductive technologies as global form refer to the simultaneity of replicating standards and creating differences, of displacements and reappropriations, raising a plethora of provocative questions for the future.
 
Inhaltsverzeichnis
Contents

Acknowledgments .................................................................................9

Reproductive Technologies as Global Form: Introduction ...................11
Michi Knecht, Maren Klotz, Stefan Beck

Five Million Miracle Babies Later: The Biocultural
Legacies of IVF ...................................................................................27
Sarah Franklin

Localizing In Vitro Fertilization: The Cultural Work of Encounters with Medical Technologies

Legacies and Linkages: Episodes in the Establishment of
New Reproductive Technologies in Contemporary Sri Lanka..............61
Bob Simpson

Practitioners as Interface Agents between the Local and
the Global: The Localization of IVF in Turkey ....................................81
Zeynep B. Gürtin

Making Connections: Reflecting on Trains, Kinship, and
Information Technology....................................................................111
Maren Klotz

National Styles of Reproductive Governance and Global Forms

The Other Mother: Supplementary Wombs and the
Surrogate State in India .....................................................................139
Aditya Bharadwaj

Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Mali:
Asymmetries and Frictions ................................................................161
Viola Horbst

Concerned Groups in the Field of Reproductive
Technologies: A Turkish Case Study .................................................197
Nurhak Polat

Tracing Transnational Scapes of Reproductive Technologies: Emergent Forms and Domains of Regulation

Globalization and Gametes: Reproductive »Tourism«,
Islamic Bioethics, and Middle Eastern Modernity .............................229
Marcia C. Inhorn

Reproducing Hungarians: Reflections on Fuzzy Boundaries
in Reproductive Border Crossing.......................................................255
Eva-Maria Knoll

What is Europeanization in the Field of Assisted
Reproductive Technologies? ..............................................................283
Maren Klotz & Michi Knecht

Transnational Reproductive Mobilities, Materialities, and Agencies

Making Interferences: The Cultural Politics of Transnational
Ova »Donation« ................................................................................305
Michal Nahman

Resemblance that Matters: On Transnational Anonymized
Egg Donation in Two European IVF Clinics.....................................331
Sven Bergmann

Biomedical Mobilities: Transnational Lab-Benches and
Other Space-Effects...........................................................................357
Stefan Beck

Notes on Contributors ......................................................................375

Index of Names and Places ................................................................381
 
Auszug aus dem Text
Reproductive Technologies as Global Form: Introduction




Michi Knecht, Maren Klotz, Stefan Beck




A few years after the British Government had made ova and sperm donation non-anonymous in 2005, one of the editors of this volume spent a series of rainy summer afternoons in a sperm bank in Northern England. Maren Klotz was shadowing the practices of the two young female biologists working in the laboratory and the administration office. She was shown how to count sperm cells under the microscope following WHO standards to determine semen quality. The staff told her that the interlaboratory testing rounds to establish a high level of standardization within these quality measurements, existent both in Germany and Great Britain, were "fun in a geeky scientist kind of way." And she tried to understand how the minute guidelines of the British Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) were actually playing out in the English clinic. When biologists Rose Daffyd and Canelle Ukwu quizzed her about the German regulatory situation they could not believe that in Germany ova donation was illegal while sperm donation was allowed and actually hardly regulated at all. One afternoon Ukwu, who was mainly in charge of donor recruitment and administration and who was spending a gap year before going back to a prestigious university to pursue postgraduate studies in cell biology, showed this editor how to centrally register sperm donors with the HFEA. The main bulk of information was filled into an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) document and electronically transferred to the HFEA computers. "How is that handled in Germany?," Canelle Ukwu asked. "We have also had a change in regulations," Maren Klotz said. "It is non-anonymous donations in Germany now as well, but what kind of data needs to be stored and how it could actually become accessible is quite unclear to German experts." Klotz added she would next be interviewing British donor-conceived persons who had used the service UK Donorlink to potentially find half-siblings and donors via DNA testing. Ukwu shook her head and said that she did not understand at all what was motivating these searches or why the HFEA should make available the information she was just punching into her keyboard in 18 years: "My family is from Cameroon and my father, the man who raised me, my mother's partner, also isn't my biological father. Why should I care about that?" Ukwu asked. "Where my family is from," she added, "it's normal that children are raised away from their biological parents. Don't people in Britain have more important things to do than look for their sperm donor or half-siblings they have nothing to do with?" She shook her head in a gesture as if she viewed such endeavors as English extravagance. Then she offered her view as a biologist: "Medical histories of family members have become less important nowadays anyhow; you can simply use genetic testing if you want to know something about risk susceptibilities." The donor-conceived adults Maren Klotz met later that night were of a different opinion: They mourned the absence of identifiable donor information for them and cursed that they had been born before the comprehensive regulations on reproductive technologies had come into force in Britain. One of them had spent years being monitored for a hereditary condition prevalent on her father's side before finding out she was donor- conceived.




Ukwu's casual commentaries in the ethnographic vignette above capture quite pointedly some of the contemporary questions raised through reproductive technologies within a period of increased globalization, questions which have motivated the compilation of this book: Reproductive technologies have spread across various kinds of boundaries and into socially and culturally diverse settings, situations and regions. However, while people, technologies, human gametes, knowledge and ideas about appropriate regulation circulate widely, the legislation of reproductive technologies is still primarily implemented in territories, whose borders are duly policed by a nation state. Furthermore, local articulations of assisted reproduction in their uneven technological spread across the globe never take place in a social or economical vacuum: They instead become part of emergent national styles of reproductive governance shaped in interaction with local understandings of kinship, the role of "biologies and the biological" , legitimate family forms, prevalent gender asymmetries and economic considerations. As a result, the proliferation of reproductive technologies into different contexts of appropriation does not lead to homogenous forms of deployment. Rather, it has led to a wide range of very different forms of regulation, bans, and approvals as well as to considerable differences in clinical practice, public or private financing, and moral or ethical reasoning. A multi-local configuration has emerged from the multitude of practices that are generating, transferring, acquiring, imagining, and regulating reproductive technologies across and beyond regional and national borders: a transnational or even global "assemblage" that constantly re-defines and re-produces reproductive technologies and its contexts, both locally and globally.


 
Biographische Informationen
Die Herausgeberinnen und Herausgeber arbeiten als Ethnologen an der Humboldt- Universität zu Berlin.
 
Reihe
Eigene und Fremde Welten - Band 19

Campus Verlag; July 2012
389 pages; ISBN 9783593411415
Download in secure PDF format
ISBNs
3593411415
9783593391007
9783593411415