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The Volcano Theme Book

A cross curriculum theme book for enhancing and consolidating students’ knowledge of volcanoes.

The Volcano Theme Book by Alison Fletcher
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Volcanoes and earthquakes can change the surface of the earth very suddenly and without warning. They both involve the release of a huge amount of pressure from deep within the earth. A tsunami, or giant wave, can result from an earthquake or volcanic eruption. The devastation caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis kills many thousands of people every decade and destroys homes and land, but there are also many benefits of these powerful phenomenon. The study of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis provides the basis for an interesting, exciting and motivating classroom theme, for students of all ages.

In this book you will find ... Teachers’ Notes Each Teachers’ Notes section contains comprehensive background information on volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. Pictures and Diagrams Many detailed pictures and diagrams have been included to demonstrate the various processes. Glossary - This contains definitions of the terms you will need to know when teaching about volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. Websites - A list of websites has been included. These are designed specifically for children and are a great way to enhance your teaching programme. Student Activities - Activities have been devised to enhance and consolidate the topics of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. These cover a range of learning areas including language, mathematics, science, technology and enterprise, social studies, and health. The activities are designed for the 6 to 8 year age group, and include: cloze activities, word sleuths, sentence matching, crosswords, comprehension, unjumbling of words, labeling, addition and subtraction, mapping, and grid work.

Ready-Ed Publications; September 2001
57 pages; ISBN 9781863974578
Read online, or download in secure PDF format
Title: The Volcano Theme Book
Author: Alison Fletcher; Terry Allen
 
Excerpt

Teachers' Notes:
Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Volcanoes

A volcano is a vent or chimney that provides an opening in the earth’s surface through which molten rock called magma, can escape. This is often accompanied by gas, ash and pieces of rock.

The shape of a volcano is made up of layers of hardened lava and ash that build up with each eruption.

Volcanoes come in different shapes and sizes, due to the rate of flow of the lava. Slow moving lava that travels a long way will produce a gently sloping, shield volcano. However, lava that hardens before it can flow very far builds up high layers, like Mount Fuji, in Japan.

There are several different types of eruptions. These can cause huge devastation to a landscape, destroy farmland and may lead to loss of life. Lava pouring into the ocean can cause beaches to disappear and new coastlines to form.

Volcanoes however, do have a positive side. Lava breaking down over the years can provide areas with rich, fertile volcanic soil. Volcanic rock may also contain precious stones such as diamonds and opals. Hot springs are a source of geo-thermal energy.

Earthquakes

When brittle rocks beneath the surface of the earth break suddenly due to pressures deep within, an earthquake can occur. This pressure often takes hundreds of years to build.

Earthquakes can also be caused by the collision of tectonic plates.

Whatever the cause, earthquakes can result in huge devastation and damage. An impending earthquake gives no warning and can create chaos.

Each year about 500 000 earthquakes occur around the world. Most of these tremors are very small and many occur far out at sea.

Tsunamis

Tsunamis are giant waves that are caused by an earthquake. They can reach heights of 30 meters and can travel at speeds of up to 800 kilometers per hour.

They can cause massive devastation when they suddenly crash down upon the coastline.

Many places, including Hawaii and Japan, have sirens at the ready to warn the population of an approaching tsunami. When a warning is given, people must move as quickly as possible to higher ground.

Inside the Earth

The earth is more than 12 000 kilometers thick. The outer layer of the earth is known as the crust. Under the crust is an intensely hot layer of dense rock called the mantle. Inside this mantle lies the core, which is made up of an outer layer of liquid metal and a dense inner core of solid metal alloys.

The temperature in the core may be as high as 5000°C. Heating and cooling that occurs in the core causes the magma from the mantle to rise near the surface of the earth. When it does force its way to the surface, it can cause earthquakes and form volcanoes.