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Interleukin-10 by Francesco M. Marincola
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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is regarded as an immune suppressant cytokine. This reputation is due to the experimental observation that IL-10 decreases the function of antigen presenting cells and T helper 1 type immune responses. Surprisingly, however, IL-10 has potent anti-cancer effects since most experimental models demonstrate immune-mediated anti-tumor effects whether IL-10 is locally (tumor transfectant models) or systemically (transgenic models, administration of soluble cytokine) provided. In addition, recent work has suggested that polymorphisms of the promoter region of IL-10 may segregate propulsions in high and low producers. Surprisingly, high IL-10 producers may be more predisposed to acquire cancer and other diseases. Finally, human observations demonstrate that systemic administration of IL-10 to normal volunteers is associated with very little toxicity and pro-inflammatory properties mediated through activation of effector cells of the innate immune response. Thus, the role that interleukin-10 plays in vivo in physiological or pathological conditions remains controversial. Thus, the need to summarize in a book the state of the science of this important cytokine. I was lucky because not only I could solicit the help of several experts from all over the world but I was also able to have them generate their work in a very short amount of time (three months). This allowed the preparation of a contemporary book that through the magic of electronic publishing will be released within six months of its conception. In this book, I tried to cover not only the molecular biology of IL-10 but also asked to summarize in general terms its postulated role in controlling adoptive and innate immunity. These general chapters will have to confront the more detailed information emerging from the following chapters that refer to specific experimental and clinical models. A relatively new area that I tried to emphasize was the role that polymorphism of the IL-10 regulatory regions may play in the context of autoimmune pathology, cancer, transplantation and aging. I thought that this could be an interesting component of the book that needed to be expanded into sub-chapters since among all cytokines IL-10 appears to be one in which genetic polymorphism is strongly associated with divergent phenotypes. Finally, the role in infection, allergy, transplantation and inflammatory disease is discussed in classic separate chapters as increasing information continues to emerge in such fields. Last but not least a chapter was commissioned on the role of IL-10 in cancer since this is probably one of the most controversial areas. Taken into prospective, this book is rich in information about IL-10 from several experts in the field. As a result, redundancy is a not easily avoidable feature. On the other hand, as I was reading the various chapters I realized with interest that at times subtle differences were noticeable in the way various authors interpreted data regarding overlapping subjects while at other times consensus emerged. This allowed a spontaneous and unbiased (since none of the authors had a chance to read contributions from others before submission) comparison of the different authors opinions that might contribute a deeper dimensions to this book. Thus, I learned to appreciate this apparent redundancy, and I hope that the readers will enjoy it as well. In summary, this book offers a state of science overview of the biological role that IL-10 may play in the context of various diseases provided by several leaders in the field whom I take the opportunity to thank for their prompt and comprehensive contributions.
Landes Bioscience; January 2006
220 pages; ISBN 9781587063756
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Title: Interleukin-10
Author: Francesco M. Marincola