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Innovation and Its Enemies

Why People Resist New Technologies

Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma
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The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate regarding the impact of technology on employment. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies.Drawing from nearly 600 years of technology history, Innovation and Its Enemies identifies the tension between the need for innovation and the pressure to maintain continuity, social order, and stability as one of today's biggest policy challenges. It reveals the extent to which modern technological controversies grow out of distrust in public and private institutions. Using detailed case studies of coffee, the printing press, margarine, farm mechanization, electricity, mechanical refrigeration, recorded music, transgenic crops, and transgenic animals, it shows how new technologies emerge, take root, and create new institutional ecologies that favor their establishment in the marketplace. The book uses these lessons from history to contextualize contemporary debates surrounding technologies such as artificial intelligence, online learning, 3D printing, gene editing, robotics, drones, and renewable energy. It ultimately makes the case for shifting greater responsibility to public leaders to work with scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to manage technological change, make associated institutional adjustments, and expand public engagement on scientific and technological matters.
Oxford University Press; June 2016
320 pages; ISBN 9780190467050
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Title: Innovation and Its Enemies
Author: Calestous Juma
 
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JUMA: Africa must embrace new university models to spur innovation - Daily Nation
Mon, 22 Aug 2016 07:58:27 -0700
Daily NationJUMA: Africa must embrace new university models to spur innovationDaily NationProfessor Calestous Juma is Professor ...
Why we hate new stuff - Independent Online
Sat, 30 Jul 2016 10:08:25 -0700
Independent OnlineWhy we hate new stuffIndependent OnlineCalestous Juma, a professor in Harvard University's Kennedy School ...
Harvard study: Why important innovations stall; understanding obstacles to change is key to future - EurekAlert (press release)
Wed, 06 Jul 2016 07:04:19 -0700
EurekAlert (press release)Harvard study: Why important innovations stall; understanding obstacles to change is key to ...
ISBNs
9780190467036
9780190467043
9780190467050