Hedgehogs and Foxes

by

In this compelling look at charismatic leaders and their leadership styles, Abraham Zaleznik asserts that leaders are either 'hedgehogs,' who view leadership as a single-minded track driven by unwavering rules, or 'foxes,' who assess and re-evaluate their goals and strategies based on ever-changing factors in business, politics, and culture. Covering dynamic personalities from Dwight Eisenhower to Martin Luther King, Jr., Zaleznik draws illuminating conclusions about psycho-politics and negotiations of power and command, celebrating innovative problem-solving skills.

  • Palgrave Macmillan; August 2008
  • ISBN 9780230614154
  • Read online, or download in secure PDF format
  • Title: Hedgehogs and Foxes
  • Author: Abraham Zaleznik
  • Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan

In The Press

"In his new book, Abraham Zaleznik explores the effect on leadership of the tension between the individual identity and the roles imposed by the hierarchies of medicine, business, the military, and politics.  Drawing on examples from recent history and from literature, Zaleznik combines the subtle sensitivity of a psychoanalyst  with years of experience as a consultant to executives to make this an outstanding and indispensable book on leadership."  - Norman N. Holland, Marston-Milbauer Eminent Scholar, University of Florida

"A clear-eyed analysis and masterful account of the human side of leadership. This admirable book demonstrates Zaleznik's wisdom about styles of leadership in different kinds of organizations. This book reaches beyond the corporate world to the pages of modern history and gives us his analysis of Dwight Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Martin Luther King jr. and Joseph Conrad. This is not a book that praises the famous, rather the studies are tough minded and, yes, judgmental. Even if you do not agree with all of Zaleznick's evaluations (I ,for example, happen to like Ike) you will be impressed with his understanding." - Alan A.Stone, M.D. Past President of The American Psychiatric Association, Touroff-Glueck Professor of Law and Psychiatry in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine Harvard University

"In this important new book Abraham Zaleznik discusses leadership in organizations from a psychoanalytic perspective, examining how the character of leaders is formed, and then how that character shapes leadership style, the use of power, success and failure.  In ten fascinating case studies we learn of political, social, business and artistic leaders who changed the world, and how their characters came to be.  This is must reading for those concerned with understanding leadership in organizations." - Robert Michels, M.D., Walsh McDermott University Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry, Cornell University

About The Author

Abraham Zaleznik is Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership, Emeritus, Harvard Business School. He is the recipient of the Distinguished Service Award, 1996, and the McKinsey award for best article in the Harvard Business Review.