Ten years have passed since the publication of the first edition of this classic text in April 2001. Considerable new material amounting to 100 pages has been added in this second edition. Each chapter now contains a Summary section at the end. The new material in Chapter 4 consists of a detailed comparison of Gaussian apodization with a corresponding beam, determination of the optimum value of the Gaussian radius relative to that of the pupil to yield maximum focal-point irradiance, detailed discussion of standard deviation, aberration balancing, and Strehl ratio for primary aberrations, derivation of the aberration-free and defocused OTF, discussion of an aberrated beam yielding higher axial irradiance in a certain defocused region than its aberration-free focal-point value, illustration that aberrated PSFs lose the advantage of Gaussian apodizaton in reducing the secondary maxima of a PSF, and a brief description of the characterization of the width of a multimode beam. In Chapter 5, the effect of random longitudinal defocus on a PSF is included. The coherence length of atmospheric turbulence is calculated for looking both up and down through the atmosphere. Also discussed are the angle of arrival of a light wave propagating through turbulence, and lucky imaging where better-quality short-exposure images are selected, aligned, and added to obtain a high-quality image.