Meditations

Penguin Classics

by Marcus Aurelius, Diskin Clay, Martin Hammond

Subject categories
ISBNs
  • 9780140449334
  • 9780141910819

'Their icy blasts are refreshing and restorative. They tell you the worst. And having heard the worst, you feel less bad' Blake Morrison

Written in Greek by the only Roman emperor who was also a philosopher, without any intention of publication, the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius offer a remarkable series of challenging spiritual reflections and exercises developed as the emperor struggled to understand himself and make sense of the universe. While the Meditations were composed to provide personal consolation and encouragement, Marcus Aurelius also created one of the greatest of all works of philosophy: a timeless collection that has been consulted and admired by statesmen, thinkers and readers throughout the centuries.

Translated with notes by MARTIN HAMMOND with an Introduction by DISKIN CLAY


  • Penguin Books Ltd; April 2006
  • ISBN: 9780141910819
  • Read online, or download in secure ePub format
  • Title: Meditations
  • Author: Marcus Aurelius; Diskin Clay (other); Martin Hammond (trans.)
  • Imprint: Penguin
Subject categories
ISBNs
  • 9780140449334
  • 9780141910819

About The Author

Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, 121-180. was adopted by the emperor Antoninus Pius and succeeded him in 161, (as joint emperor with adoptive brother Lucius Verus). He ruled alone from 169. He spent much of his reign in putting down variou rebellions, and was a persecutor of Christians. His fame rest, above all, on his Meditations, a series of reflections, strongly influenced by Epictetus, which represent a Stoic outlook on life. He died in 180 and was succeed by his natural son, thus ending the period of the adoptive emperors.


Diskin Clay is Professor of Classical Studies at Duke University and has published widely in the area of Ancient Greek Philosophy.

Martin Hammond is Head Master of Tonbridge School and has translated Homer's Iliad for Penguin Classics.