This book offers a thoroughand self-contained exposition of the mathematics of time-domain boundaryintegral equations associated to the wave equation, including applications toscattering of acoustic and elastic waves. The book offers two differentapproaches for the analysis of these integral equations, including asystematic treatment of their numerical discretization using Galerkin(Boundary Element) methods in the space variables and ConvolutionQuadrature in the time variable. The first approach follows classical workstarted in the late eighties, based on Laplace transforms estimates. Thisapproach has been refined and made more accessible by tailoring thenecessary mathematical tools, avoiding an excess of generality. A secondapproach contains a novel point of view that the author and some of hiscollaborators have been developing in recent years, using the semigrouptheory of evolution equations to obtain improved results. The extension toelectromagnetic waves is explained in one of the appendices.