"This book’s value ... lies in the author’s ability to provide a starting point for provocative thinking about how expressions, representation, and symbolism may have emerged in humans and non-human primates in relation to artistic development." - Michael J. Beran and Lisa A. Heimbauer, Georgia State University Language Research Center, USA, in PsycCRITIQUES
"Meticulously scholarly. He shares his thought processes with the reader, explaining why he does things, how, and his observations would please Darwin, Piaget, all the greats! Each time I try to put the book down, the next section beckons and looks interesting." - Tina Bruce, Honorary Visiting Professor of Early Childhood Studies, Roehampton University, UK
"Starting from Scratch is not your typical psychology text. It combines careful observation with an interpretative lens that is seldom encountered in scientific work. Professor Matthews' work supplements and extends previous studies and provides a valuable database on chimpanzees' representational capabilities." - Kerry Lee, Associate Professor, Applied Cognitive Development Lab, National Institute of Education, Singapore
John Matthews is an artist and educator. He has taught all age groups from nursery children to University level, at institutions including Goldsmiths Art School and Goldsmiths Faculty of Education at the University of London, and the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His main research area has been early symbolism in very young children; more recently he has become involved in studying the precursors of symbolic thought in non-human primates.