This timely book presents practical applications of modern economic theories to trade, transaction costs and institutions within both business and governmental realms. Frank A.G. den Butter explains the importance and means of keeping transaction costs as low as possible. He illustrates how this transaction management can contribute to making firms and nations more competitive by exploiting gains from the division of labour and international fragmentation of production, and uses relevant case studies to illustrate how value is created by reducing transaction costs. Policy recommendations for strengthening the competitive position of trading nations and reducing implementation costs of government policy are presented, and management methods for creating value in organising production on a global scale are prescribed. A wide-ranging audience encompassing economists in academia, government and business; managers in industry and government; and students of economics, business and globalisation will find this book to be a crucial reference tool.